Physics of Materials aims to teach the students basic knowledge important for understanding the structure of materials, interactions that lead to such structure, connection between the structure and properties, and about the influence of processing of the materials on their structure and properties. The starting point is always the fundamental physics within which using the analogies and simple models we attempt to explain the properties and behaviour of a material. The aim is to show that the phenomena in the materials can be explained by the general laws of physics, and that emergence of the new effects can be explained by the fundamental and universal laws that are often found in other areas of physics, too. Accent is also on the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the design, research and application of new materials. The aim of the course is to point to the attractiveness, the opportunities and the need for research in this area of physics, and to encourage the students to the broader study within this field. Alongside, the learning of the initial chapters of solid state physics and other related fields will be significantly facilitated, and integration of the advanced theoretical knowledge with the phenomena in materials will be enhanced.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.1 formulate, discuss and explain the basic laws of physics including mechanics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics
1.3 demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena)
1.4 describe the state of the art in - at least- one of the presently active physics specialties
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1 identify the essentials of a process/situation and set up a working model of the same or recognize and use the existing models
2.2 evaluate clearly the orders of magnitude in situations which are physically different, but show analogies, thus allowing the use of known solutions in new problems;
2.4 adapt available models to new experimental data
3. MAKING JUDGEMENTS
3.2 develop a personal sense of responsibility, given the free choice of elective/optional courses
4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
4.1 work in an interdisciplinary team
5. LEARNING SKILLS
5.1 search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required)
5.2 remain informed of new developments and methods and provide professional advice on their possible range and applications
5.3 carry out research by undertaking a PhD
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
After successful completion of the course Physics of Materials, the student will be able to:
* Qualitatively reason about the material properties (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, ...) based on their structure, the nature of chemical bonds and other features, and classify the materials into groups having similar properties by various criteria;
* Demonstrate understanding of the different chemical bonds;
* Demonstrate understanding of the crystal structures, to describe the influence of the crystal structure on the related parameters and phenomena (the mass and charge density, coordination, reciprocal lattice, diffraction pattern, ...) and to describe qualitatively the deviation from the ideal crystalline state (defects of different dimensionality) and a complete disorder (amorphous state);
* Demonstrate understanding of the multi-phase systems, qualitatively analyze the phase diagrams (and quantitatively in selected cases);
* On some real examples demonstrate the understanding of the influence of mechanical and thermal treatment of materials on their structure and properties, and describe the design possibilities of composite material with desirable properties, with particular reference to the application;
* Demonstrate understanding of the elementary magnetic properties, occurrence of the domains and hysteresis, influence of the composition and microstructure on the magnetic properties, including an intuitive knowledge of the important physical quantities in context of application of material;
* Using the analogy with magnetic properties, to show understanding of the electrical properties of materials (ferroelectricity and different contributions to the electric polarization);
Lectures are organized within the following nine chapters:
1. Introduction (2h): a historical introduction to the materials and technology development, description of materials science, defining starting points, introducing the types of materials.
2. Chemical bonding (4h): various chemical bonds (covalent, ionic, metallic, van der Waals, hydrogen), their illustrations on various examples of materials, connection of the properties of materials with the nature of chemical bonds.
3. Crystalline state (4h): description of crystal structures and examples of the materials.
4. Disorder in condensed matter (4h): deviations from the crystal structure, defects of different dimensionality (vacancies and of other point defects, dislocations, grain boundaries and other plane defects, polycrystals), special kinds of irregularities, amorphous state.
5. Multi-phase materials (4h): types of mixtures, solubility in solid state, phase diagrams (qualitative and quantitative description), properties and phenomena in multiphase materials.
6. Performance of materials and their processing (4h): measure of mechanical properties of materials, processes induced by thermal treatments of materials (nucleation, segregation, precipitation), the processes in the non-equilibrium phase diagrams, the impact of processing on the microstructure of the materials, influence of the microstructure on the properties of material.
7. Composites (2h): wood as a natural composite material, design of a composite material of desirable properties, mechanisms of influence of the reinforcements-matrix structure on the mechanical properties.
8. Magnetic properties of materials (4h): types of magnetic materials and origin of the magnetic phenomena, different magnetic structures, domains and hysteresis, soft and hard magnets, influence of the microstructure on magnetic properties.
9. Dielectric properties of materials (2h): responses to the electric field, liquid crystals, ferroelectrics, multiferroics.
During auditory exercises, teaching is complemented with some practical knowledge related to the above mentioned chapters. Special attention is devoted to solving the problems in crystal structures, chemical bonds, and the description of multiphase materials, because it is accessible with the previously acquired knowledge and it will be of great use in the related subjects later.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Students are required to regularly attend the classes and actively follow the lectures and participate in solving problems during the auditory exercises. At the end of the semester students should come to a written test to see how they prepared the matter for the future exam.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Students are required to cooperate in class and come to the final written exam at the end of the semester. This exam consists of 25 questions that cover course contents. In the five tasks the mastering of quantitative description of the material structure and some simple properties should be demonstrated, while the answering to 20 questions should demonstrate knowledge covering the course content. The questions are complex and each brings 4 points, and passing score must be over 50%, with the grades 2 for 50-62, 3 for 63-75, 4 for 76-89 and 5 for 91-100 points. After the results of the written test, a short oral examination is performed in order to confirm the validity of grade. Students which do not pass the subject in this way must come to a longer oral examination. At the oral exam student first has to solve 4 tasks that cover topics from the exercise, and then answers to the questions from all chapters, where all questions must be answered, and the final grade depends on the degree of autonomy, connecting knowledge, explaining and entering into details.