Fundamentals of electron microscopy.
Application of electron microscopy and electron diffraction in materials science, chemistry and geology.
The modern methods of examination of materials in an electron microscope:
Scanning electron microscope (SEM), SEM for enviromental examination (ESEM),
of materials by energy dispersive X-ray analyses (X-ray mapping), Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (TEM and SAED), High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED).
The interpretation of the TEM images and diffraction of the polycrystalline, monocrystalline and amorphous samples.
The diffraction contrast. The defects characterisation in the material. Characterisation of stacking faults, tweens and antiphase boundaries using bright and dark field images.
The phase contrast. The high resolution imaging. Observation of different type of defects in high resolution mode (HRTEM) and Z-contrast imaging with the resolution beyond 0.1 nm.
The crystallographic image processing of high resolution images in order to determine the lattice deformation, dislocations, the lattice parameter, stacking faults, grain and phase boundaries. The structural resolution from 0.2 to 0.1 nm.
The latest discoveries in electron microscopy will be given: observation of oxigen positions and bonds in cuprite; atomic-scale imaging of individual dopant atoms and clusters in silicon.
The structure factor determination from HRTEM images and electron diffraction (ED). The application of Rietveld method to the images of nanocrystalline materials. The grain size, microstrain and unit cell parameters of nanocrystalline samples. The comparison of ED, X-ray and neutron diffraction .
Exercises: Practical work in EM laboratory; the evaluation of TEM, HRTEM and ED images. The practical presentation of the methods working in the JEOL 200 kV EM. The HRTEM image processing analyses of some images and ED.
- OBVEZNA LITERATURA:
D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science, Springer-Verlag, 2009.
P. R. Buseck, Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 27. ; Minerals and reactions at the atomic scale: Transmision Electron Microscopy, Mineralogical Society of America, 1992.
J.J. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy , C. Fiori, E. Lifshin, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X- ray Microanalysis, Plenum Press, 3rd edition, New York / London, 2001.
M. Rühle and M. Wilkens, Electron Microscopy , in R.W. Cahn and P. Haasen, eds. Physical Metallurgy; fourth, revised edition, Elsevier Science BV, 1996.
- DOPUNSKA LTERATURA:
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