* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Recognize, define and describe structure of eukaryotic cell and compare it with the structure of simpler prokaryotic cell.
2. Describe and explain processes which take place in certain cellular compartments and connect them with functioning of the entire cell.
3. Identify and describe each phase of cell division of somatic and germ cells.
4. Apply techniques of light and electron microscopy.
5. Analise, summarize and interpret information obtained on the basis of the written text (book chapter or scientific article).
During this course students will get an integral knowledge on cell structure, molecular organization and function of cell organelles. The special attention is given to the practical part of the course where students get the basic skills in light microscopy and cell fractionation.
1. Chemical composition of the cell
2. Methods in cell biology; Light and electron microscopy, Cell fractionation and centrifugation; Protein electrophoresis and chromatography; Comet test; Polymerase chain reaction
3. Cell theory and origin of the first cells; Basic plan of cellular organization; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Differences between eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cell)
4. Biomembranes: biomembrane organisation; Fluid mosaic model; Lipid bilayer; Membrane proteins and carbohydrates; Membrane transport
5. Mitochondria: Organisation and function; inner membrane and its role in energy conversion (oxidative phosphorylation); Biogenesis and origin of mitochondria; Endosymbiotic theory; Mitochondrial genome
6. Plastids: Plastid types (proplastids, chloroplasts, leucoplasts, chromoplasts, etioplasts and gerontoplasts); Differences in structure and function of different plastid types; Plastid genome
7. Chloroplast structure and ultrastructure; Thylakoid membranes and energy conversion; Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis; Peroxisome structure and function; Photorespiration
8. Endoplasmic reticulum: Organisation and function; Rough ER and cotranslational protein import; Smooth ER and lipid synthesis; Vesicular transport of molecules
9. Golgi complex: Organisation and function; Formation of ERGIC complex; Biochemical and functional compartmentalization of Golgi complex; Molecule modification in Golgi cisterna; Chlatrin coated vesicles
10. Lysosomes and vacuoles: Organisation and function; Protein secretion; Constitutive and regulated secretion; Protein glycosylation
11. Cytoskeleton: Organisation and function; Microfilaments; Intermediate filaments; Microtubules; Cilia and flagella
12. Signal transduction pathway; From receptor in the cell membrane to the target molecule; Hormones in signal transduction; Cell to cell communication
13. Nucleus; organization and function; nuclear envelope; Chromatin and chromosomes; from DNA to chromosomes; synthesis of ribosomal RNA
14. Cell cycle, mitosis and cell cycle control; Endomitosis; Polytene chromosomes; C-mitosis
15. Meiosis; Crossing over; Genetic recombination
2. Cell structure and basic organisational cell types
3. Biomembranes: indirect observations
5. Chloroplast isolation. Cellular fractionation and centrifugation
6. Tissue sections, dying and microscopy
7. Nucleus, Mitosis
8. Endomitosis; Polytene chromosomes and C-mitosis
9. Meiosis I: section preparation and microscopy
10. Meiosis II: problem solving
11. Isolation of nuclei and DNA fibres
Seminar part of the course is linked to lectures and includes preparation of oral presentation and written abstract of each student based on book chapter or scientific article.
- The Cell - A Molecular Approach. 2nd ed. Cooper, Geoffrey M. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc; 2000.
- Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Alberts, Bruce i sur. New York: Garland Publishing; 2008
- Stanica, molekularni pristup. Cooper, Geoffrey M - hrvatsko izdanje, Zagreb: Medicinska naklada; 2004.
- Krsnik-Rasol M, Besendorfer V, Balen B. Peharec P. PRAKTIKUM IZ BIOLOGIJE STANICE, interna skripta i obrasci, http://www.pmf.unizg.hr/biol