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Fundamentals of Histology and Embryology

Code: 171104
ECTS: 4.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan
Lecturers: dr. sc. Andreja Lucić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. describe how to prepare animal tissues for light microscopy
2. identify a number of basic tissue-types from their microscopic appearance
3. recognize the microscopic structure of most animal organs and associate it with organ function
4. understand why histology is essential for basic investigations and accurate diagnosis
5. define basic developmental processes and embryonic stages of man and animals
6. apply previous knowledge of cell biology and anatomy in the interpretation of specific content and develop a tendency for further learning
7. learn to use teaching literature, aids, biological materials and accessories
8. determine slide quality, tissue and tissue structure relationship and proportions, interprets histology and embriology slides


1. Introduction to histology and embryology. The principles of preparative and microscope techniques for studying permanent histological slides.
2. Epithelial tissues: structure and characteristics of tissues; examples of epithelium in the body.
3. Connective tissues: structure, types and characteristics of tissues; examples in the body.
4. Special connective tissues: bone and cartilage, adipose tissue, bone marrow, blood.
5. Muscle tissue: structure, types and characteristics of tissues; examples in the body.
6. Nervous tissue: structure and characteristics of tissues; central and peripheral nervous system.
7. Immune system: cells, diffuse lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs.
8. Gastrointestinal tract: structure of oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine.
9. Large gastrointestinal glands: structure of salivary glands, liver and pancreas.
10. Respiratory system: the structure of conducting system and respiratory zone. Urinary system: the structure of kidney.
11. Endocrine glands: hypophysis, adrenal and thyroid gland, diffuse neuroendocrine system.
12. Reproductive system. Structure of the testis and ovaries. Gametogenesis.
13. Functional structure of the oviducts and uterus. The menstrual cycle, fertilization and implantation.
14. Embryonal phase: animal cleavage, gastrulation. Germ layer formation and their derivatives.
15. Neurulation and organogenesis.

1. Tissue sampling, choice of fixatives, tissue embedding in paraffin blocks, tissue freezing, sectioning tissues: microtome and cryostat, tissue staining: routine and specialized stains.
2. Light microscopy. Structure of epithelial and connective tissues.
3. Dense connective tissues: bone and cartilage.
4. Structure of muscle and neural tissue.
5. Structure of blood vessels, blood cells; bone marrow.
6. Immune system: thymus, lymph nodes, spleen.
7. Structure of digestive tract: oesophagus, stomach, small intestine.
8. Structure of digestive glands: liver and pancreas.
9. Urinary system: kidney. Respiratory system: trachea and lungs.
10. Endocrine system: hypophysis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland.
11. Reproductive system: structure of ovaries and testes.
12. Female reproductive tract: structure of oviduct and uterus: fertilization, blastocyst development.
13. Implantation and differentiation of extraembryonic tissues.
14. Gastrulation and beginning of organogenesis.
2. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule:
  • izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan:

    Wednesday and Friday, 10-12 a.m.