(1) Defining and comprehension of fundamental concepts in plant physiology as well as developing predisposition for further learning
(2) Presenting the processes of water uptake, transport and loss and analyzing the role of water in plants
(3) Understanding processes of absorption and assimilation of mineral nutrients and analyzing their role in plants
(4) Using basic postulates in analyzing a wide range of facts about the processes of photosynthesis and respiration
(5) Interpreting and using important facts about the processes of growth, differentiation, development and aging in plants
(6) Understanding the role of plant growth regulators
(7) Interpreting and analyzing the effects of temperature and light on plant growth and development
(8) Understanding and analyzing the surface protection and plant defense mechanisms
(9) Applying the basic postulates of plant physiology in interpreting the effects of stressful conditions on plants
(10) Carrying out experiments by using a variety of methods and instruments, analyzing the results and applying them in teaching biology
1. Introduction in plant physiology: difference between plants and other organisms, plant cell features.
2. Water and plants: absorption, transport and water loss: role of water in plants, water absorption processes, water potential, regulation of water balance, water transport: cohesion-tension theory and root pressure, water loss: transpiration and guttation, mechanisms and regulation of stomata opening.
3. Mineral nutrition and assimilation of mineral nutrients: essential nutrients: absorption and function, mycorrhizae, halophytes, nitrate and ammonium assimilation, biological nitrogen fixation, sulphur, phosphate, cation and oxygen assimilation.
4. Solute transport: passive and active transport, mechanisms of solutes transport in cells, tissues and entire plant.
5. and 6. Photosynthesis: chemoautotrophy and photoautotrophy, photosynthesis in algae and bacteria, photosynthesis in plants, structure of ptotosynthetic apparatus, light reactions, Calvin cycle, photorespiration, C3, C4 and CAM plants, effects of environmental factors (light, CO2, temperature) on photosynthesis rate, translocation of photosynthesis products: source-to-sink pathway; heterotrophy: parasitic and carnivorous plants.
7. Respiration and lipid metabolism: aerobic respiration: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport and ATP synthesis, anaerobic respiration: alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation, effects of environmental factors on respiration rate; whole-plant respiration; lipid metabolism, mobilization of storage lipids and proteins.
8. Growth, differentiation, development and senescence: intracellular and intercellular regulations: signal transduction; growth: meristems; differentiation: polarity of plant cell; senescence and programmed cell death: mechanism and consequence; abscission of organs.
9. and 10. Plant growth regulators (plant hormones): auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid: discovery, structure and biosynthesis, metabolism, transport, effects, mechanism of action.
11. Influence of temperature on plant growth and development: bud and seed dormancy: coat-imposed dormancy and embryo dormancy, plant growth regulators and dormancy.
12. Influence of light on plant growth and development: photomorphogenesis, phytochromes: properties, localization, mechanism of action, function; circadian rhythms; control of flowering: autonomous regulation; short-day, long-day and day-neutral plants, vernalization, signals involved in flowering, inhibition of flowering, plant growth regulators and flowering.
13. Plant defense: surface protection and secondary metabolites: cutin, suberin and waxes, terpenes and phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds: biosynthetic pathways, distribution in plants, mode of action, function.
14. and 15. Stress physiology: water defficit an drought resistance, low temperatures: chilling and freezing, high temperatures: heat stress and heat shock, salinity stress, oxygen deficiency: anaerobic stress, light and UV stress, air and soil pollution, biotic stress, oxidative stress.
Physiology and specifics of plant cells: Observation of cell wall, vacuoles and plastids, Detection of suberin, Detection and role of organic acids in plants, Detection of oxalic acid, Detection of tartaric acid, Detection and role of carbohydrates in plants, Detection of inulin
Water uptake, transport and loss: Traube cell, Observation of processes and types of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis, Detection of cuticular and stomatal transpiration using cobalt paper, Measurement of stomata aperture using the method of nitrocellulose prints, Guttation
Mineral nutrition in plants: Detection of ferric ions in plants, Detection of ammonium ions in plants, Detection of nitrates in plants
Photosynthesis: Lyophilisation of plant material and extraction of plant pigments, Spectrophotometric determination of total chlorophylls and carotenoids, Detection of starch in leaves, Chlorophyll fluorescence in vitro and in vivo, Thin-layer chromatography and determination of the contents and absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments, Observation of chlorophylls under UV light, Paper chromatography
Respiration: Model of the respiratory chain, Measurement of polyphenoloxidase activity, Reactions for protein detection, Spectrophotometric determination of protein content
Detection of secondary metabolites: The enzymatic degradation of the glycoside amygdalin and prulaurazine, Detection of esculin, fraxin and berberine by fluorescence, Determination of phenols, Determination of tannins, Absorption spectrum of anthocyanins, Color changes of anthocyanins at various pH levels, Simple tests for distinguishing between anthocyanins and betacyanins, Determination of antioxidant capacity by DPPH method, Plant hormones and transformation of plant cells: Role of ethylene in leaf senescence, Effect of auxins on rhizogenesis, Effect of gibberellic acid on stem elongation, Effect of kinetin in delaying leaf senescence
Plant movements: Thermonastic and photonastic movements, Seismonastic movements, Phototaxis of chloroplasts.