Fundamentals of Geophysics

Fundamentals of Geophysics

Code: 40726
ECTS: 3.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Snježana Markušić - Lectures
Lecturers: Tomislav Fiket - Exercises
Take exam: Studomat
Load:

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Exercises 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Description:
COURSE GOALS: Course objectives are acquisition of basic theoretical knowledge in the field of geophysics, acquisition of operational knowledge in the methods of data processing in geophysics and acquiring skills for solving numerical problems in geophysics.

LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.2. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena);
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1. identify and describe important aspects of a particular physical phenomenon or problem;
2.7. use computing technology to solve scientific and technological problems;
4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
4.3. present their own research results at education or scientific meetings;

LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
It is expected that after this course student should be able to:
* demonstrate knowledge of the Earth's shape and structure of the Earth's interior;
* demonstrate knowledge of gravity (forces on the Earth's surface, geoid, Clairautov theorem, reduction of measured values of gravity acceleration, ...);
* explain the theory of isostasy;
* demonstrate knowledge of various methods of earthquake investigations (macroseismic and microseismic);
* explain and understand the difference between intensity and magnitude of earthquake;
* demonstrate basic knowledge of geomagnetism;
* demonstrate basic knowledge of the Earth's internal heat.

COURSE DESCRIPTION:
1. Introduction to the Earth (shape and size, mass and density, the Moon, the Earth's axis, the Earth's orbit, temperatures on Earth, atmosphere, origin of Earth, origin of water on Earth, Earth's interior - formerly and today)
2. Coordinates on the Earth's surface (sphere coordinates - axis and major circle, latitude and longitude, Earth as spheroid, geoid and geoid undulations, altitude and depths)
3. Gravity (Newton's law of gravitation and force of gravity, centripetal and centrifugal forces, gravitation, Clairaut's theorem, measurements of gravity accelerations, reduction of measured values of gravity accelerations - correction for altitude, Bouguer's correction, topographical correction, normal values of gravity accelerations, gravity field of the Earth, anomalies of gravity field, tides)
4. Isostasy (concept of isostasy, Pratt's and Airy's theory of isostasy)
5. Seismicity and the sources of earthquakes (concept of seismicity, spatial distribution and statistics of earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, sources and types of earthquakes, earthquake mechanism and Reid's elastic rebound theory, macroseismic method of earthquake investigation - earthquake intensity, macroseismic scales, isoseismal maps, microseismic method of earthquake investigation - earthquake magnitude, microseisms, tsunami)
6. Seismic waves and Earth's internal structure (constants of elasticity, oscillation and waves, wave equation, reflection, refraction, concept of seismograph, earthquake waves - body and surface, hodochrones and microseismical method of epicenter determination, earthquake magnitude, investigations of Earth's interior, Moho discontinuity)
7. Earth's magnetism (general terms, the Earth's magnetic field, geomagnetic elements, magnetosphere and main field, magnetic poles, polar light)
8. Earth's internal heat (heat as energy transfer, heat flow, heat conduction, heat convection - adiabatic temperature gradient, measurement of the Earth's surface heat flow)

REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Regular attending classes, colloquiums, to perform macroseismic and microseismic exercises.

GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
During the semester student have two colloquiums which require to collect a minimum of 20% of the points (on each of them). Colloquiums typically consist of 2 numerical and 2 theoretical tasks. Students who collect on both colloquia more than 50% of the points, and fulfil all other obligations of the course, is being offered the final mark. Those who are not satisfied it, may take the oral exam. Other students, who collected less than 50% of the points on the colloquia (one or both), must take the written and oral exams. Students who collected less than 20% of the points on one or both colloquia must re-enrol this course. For students who take the examination final mark is determined as a function of marks of written exam, colloquies, of activities during the semester and of oral exam.
Literature:
  1. Lay, T. and T.C. Wallace, 1995. Modern global seismology, Academic Press, Toronto
  2. Bullen, K.E. and B.A. Bolt, 1985. Introduction to the theory of seismology, Cambridge
  3. Garland, G.D.,1979. Introduction to geophysics, W.B. Saunders Co., Toronto
  4. Turcotte D.L. and G. Schubert, 2002. Geodynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Fundamentals of Physics 2
3. semester
Izborni predmet 1 - Mandatory studij - Physics and Computer Science Education

4. semester Not active
Izborni predmet 1 - Mandatory studij - Physics and Computer Science Education
Consultations schedule:

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