COURSE GOALS: Structure and function of biological macromolecules and their metabolism; storing and transducing of chemical energy; DNA, RNA and the flow of genetic information.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.2. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the fundamental concepts in chemistry
1.4. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the most important chemistry laws and theories
1.7. describe the framework of natural sciences
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.2. describe important aspects of chemical change
2.4. recognize and follow the logic of arguments, evaluate the adequacy of arguments and construct well supported arguments
5. LEARNING SKILLS
5.1. search for and use professional literature as well as any other sources of relevant information
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
1. to specify and explain structure and function of major biological (macro)molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates),
2. to explain and interpret the structure-function relationship of biological (macro)molecules,
3. to explain principles of enzyme catalysis (mechanisms and kinetics of enzyme reaction, regulatory strategies),
4. to specify and explain composition and function of cellular membranes
5. to recapitulate the basics of metabolism resulting in ATP generation and to explain mechanisms underlying energy conversion in biological systems,
6. to show knowledge and understanding of basic metabolic pathways (catabolic and biosynthetic) and modes of their regulation,
7. to specify the enzymes that participate in the metabolism, to draw the metabolic reactions and show structure of reaction intermediates,
8. to explain the molecular foundations of selected physiological processes,
9. to show knowledge and understanding of basic biochemical processes involved in the flow of genetic information in prokaryotes and eukaryotes,
10. to interpret structure and modes of action of enzymes and macromolecular complexes involved in the flow of genetic information and regulation of gene expression.
1. Introduction: basic macromolecules- DNA, RNA, proteins, covalent and non-covalent interactions, entropy and the laws of thermodynamics.
2. Biochemical evolution: origin of key organic molecules, energy transformation in living systems, origin of organized biological systems (cells) and their interaction with environment.
3. Proteins I; amino acid's structure and primary structure of proteins.
4. Proteins II; secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.
5. Enzymes: basic concepts and kinetics, free energy change and equilibrium. Michaelis-Menten Model and allosteric enzymes kinetics. Influence of inhibitors on kinetic properties.
6. Catalytic and regulatory strategies of enzymes. Proteases, hemoglobin, aspartate transcarbamoylase, isozymes, covalent modifications.
7. Membranes: structural components - lipids and proteins. Transfer through membranes: pumps and ion channels.
8. Metabolism. Coupled interconnecting reactions. ATP and structural basis of its high phosphoryl transfer potential. Electron carriers: NADH and FADH2. Coenzyme A. Regulation of metabolism.
9. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Reactions of glucose degradation to pyruvate and energy yield. Glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors.
10. Cell respiration. Citric acid cycle (reactions, stoichiometry, control). Oxidative phosphorylation (proton and electron carriers in respiratory chain, proton gradient formation)
11. Photosynthesis. Chlorophylls. Reactions of photosynthesis: photosystems I and II, cytochrome bf. Proton gradient and ATP synthesis
12. The Calvin cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway. Three steps in the Calvin cycle and two phases of the pentose phosphate pathway. The net reactions.
13. Glycogen metabolism. Breakdown and synthesis, regulation.
14. Fatty acid metabolism. Reactions of degradation and synthesis. Net reactions. Control of metabolism.
15. Protein turnover and amino acid catabolism. Degradations of proteins to amino acids and regulation. The urea cycle. Carbon atoms of degraded amino acids as major metabolic intermediates.
16. The biosynthesis of amino acids. Nitrogen fixation. amino acid synthesis from intermediates of citric acid cycle and other major pathways. Regulation of biosynthesis.
17. Nucleotide biosynthesis. Synthesis of pyrimidine ring from aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate. The purine ring assembled on ribose phosphate. Synthesis of deoxyribonucletides.
18. DNA, RNA and the flow of genetic information. Structural elements of nucleic acids. The double helix and complementary chains. A, B, Z structure. Introduction into replication, transcription and translation.
19. Replication and recombination. Semiconservative replication. Cellular apparatus for DNA replication. Recombination. Recombinational repair.
20. Transcription and RNA processing. Bacterial transcription, postranscriptional modifications. Eukaryotic transcription: three types of RNA polymerases. Cellular apparatus for intron splicing.
21. Protein biosynthesis. Adaptor role of tRNA. Genetic code. Ribosome structure. Initiation, elongation and termination of polypeptide chain.
22. Control of gene expression. Operons: regulation by repressor. Eukaryotic regulation: transcriptional activation and repression. Posttranscriptional regulation.
23. Organization of eukaryotic genome. Genome size and gene content. Repetitive genes and noncoding DNA. Nucleosome structure.
24. Viruses. Structure, specificity in the transfer of genetic information. Relation to the host.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Obligatory attendance of the lectures, participation in the partial testing results of which could be added to the results of the exam or can even substitute the exam.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Written (if the results of partial testing are not adequate) and oral exams.
- OBAVEZNA LITERATURA:
L. Stryer, J. Berg i J. Tymoczko, BIOKEMIJA (6. izd), Školska knjiga, 2013. (prijevod na hrvatski jezik)
J. M. Berg, J. L. Tymoczko i L. Stryer, BIOCHEMISTRY (7. izd.), W. H. Freeman & Co, New York, 2012.
- DOPUNSKA LITERATURA:
D. Voet i J. G. Voet: Biochemistry, 4. izd., Wiley, New York 2011.
D. L. Nelson i M. M. Cox, LEHNINGER PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY (6. izd.), W. H. Freeman & Co, New York, 2013.