1. Carbohydrates. Structural types. Monosaccharides. Chemistry of monosaccharides. Glycosides. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Determination of the structure and syntheses of oligosaccharides. Structural characteristics and biological properties (glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin).
2. Nucleosides, nucleotides, and polynucleotides - conformation, synthesis, and biosynthesis. Oligo- and polynucleotides. Synthesis and biosynthesis of oligo- and polynucleotides.
3. Amino acids and proteins. Acid-Base properties and stereochemistry of amino acids. Resolution of the amino acid racemates. Enantioselective syntheses of amino acids. Peptides and proteins. Solid-phase peptide synthesis. Protective groups in peptide chemistry. Some specific linear and cyclic peptides and proteins.
4. Terpenoids. General routes of biogenesis. Structure and stereochemistry of terpenoids. Monoterpenoids. Sesquiterpenoids. Diterpenoids. Triterpenoids. Tetraterpenoids. Polyterpenoids. Steroids. Cholesterol. Bile acids. Sex hormones. Saponins. Vitamin D. Phytosterols. Chemical syntheses and transformations.
5. Lipids. Structure and properties of fatty acids. Biosynthesis and chemical syntheses. Prostaglandins. Thromboxanes and leukotrienes.
6. Polyphenols. Structural types. Natural occurrence. Isolation and structure elucidation. Biogenesis. Laboratory syntheses.
7. Alkaloids. Structural characteristics. Natural occurrence. Isolation and structure elucidation. Biosynthesis of alkaloids. Laboratory synthesis of alkaloids.
- students will be able to recognize different classes of natural organic compounds and explain their physical and chemical properties;
- compare the structure of natural compounds and their chemical reactivity;
- interpret important processes of biosynthesis of biologically active secondary metabolites;
- apply basic knowledge of organic chemistry in the synthesis of natural organic compounds;
- explain the most important mechanisms of reactions during the synthesis and biosynthesis of organic compounds;
- present scientific contents in writing and orally
- know the basic laboratory techniques of isolation, purification, and characterization of natural compounds