Definitions and goals of structural geology and tectonics, the role of structural geology and tectonics in a modern multi disciplinary exploration in geosciences. Concept of detailed structural analysis: descriptive, kinematic and dynamic analysis - basic idea and principles. Exercises: The principle of stereographic projection of lines and planes. Homogeneous and non-homogeneous deformation. Coaxial and noncoaxial strain - pure shear and simple shear. Concept of incremental and finite strain ellipse and strain ellipsoid. Stress ellipsoid, resolving normal and shear stresses on Mohr stress diagrams. Stress ? strain relationships: rock behaviour, role of temperature, strain rate and time for brittle and ductile deformation. Exercises: Characteristics and use of different kinds of stereonets: polar, Schmidt (equal area) and Wulff net. Plotting the orientation of lines and planes. Joints and fractures ? morphology, genetic classification. Tensional, compressional and shear joints ? joint-face ornamentation and associated microstructures. Development of antitaxial and syntaxial veins. Exercises: The use of stereographic projection in structural geology: Measuring the angle between lines and planes (e.g. between fault striations, mineral lineations, fault planes, etc.). Relationship between major types of joints and principal stress directions. Methods for mapping of joints and shear fractures. Joints and fractures in folded and faulted rocks and regions. Exercises: The use of stereographic projection in structural geology: Orientation of the intersection of two planes (e.g. conjugate fault planes, etc.), calculation of true and apparent dips of lines and planes ? the use of method in construction of structural cross-sections. Faults ? basic definitions, why and where they form. Fault rocks. Types of faults, morphology and kinemtics. Determination of slip on faults. Exercises: Stereographic projection and rotation about a horizontal and inclined axes (e.g. rotation of fold limbs, fault blocks, restoration of tilted beds, etc.). Dynamic analysis of faulting. Transition of faults into shear zones with progressive deformation ? transition from cataclastic into mylonitic rocks. Types of shear zones, why and where they form. Exercises: Hour-exam #1: Principle and use of stereographic projection. Shear zones: sense of shear determination ? offset and deflection of markers, shear sense indicators. Exercises: Structural analysis of mylonitic rocks presented on photographs of oriented thin sections. Stereographic projection of joints and faults ? determination of stress directions. Hour-exam #2: Joints, faults and shear zones. Exercises: Stereographic projection as a statistical tool ? density contouring on stereograms. Preparation and reading of density contour diagrams. Folds ? descriptive analysis of folds: geometric parts of folded surface, layers and multilayers, fold size, attitude, cylindricity, symmetry and style. Exercises: Stereographic projection in analysis of folds ? preparation of "?" and "?" diagrams, estimation of fold cylindricity. Fold classifications. Order of folds. Superposed folding. Exercises: Structural analysis of superposed folding on photographs. Construction of "?" diagram and estimation of fold cylindricity ? real example of field data, 1. part. Kinematic analysis of folding: fundamental mechanisms of folding (flexural folding, passive folding and kink folding). Orientation and distribution of joints and faults associated with folds. Exercises: Construction of "?" diagram and estimation of fold cylindricity ? real example of field data, 1. part. Foliations and lineations in tectonites. Morphological classification of foliations. Mechanisms of foliation development. Foliations (cleavages) and folds. Transposition of foliation. Exercises: Structural analysis of different types of foliations on photographs of oriented thin sections. Classification of lineations. Fold mullions, boudinage and boudins ? morphology, types of and mechanism of formation. Exercises: Structural analysis of boudinage on photographs. Introduction to tectonics: structural assemblages in regions characterized by extensional, compressional and wrench (strike-slip) tectonics ? basic terminology, examples and analogue models. Exercises: Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles in regions characterized by extensional, compressional and wrench (strike-slip) tectonics. Hour-exam #3: Folds, foliations, lineations and introduction to tectonics.
Ability to perform an independent descriptive, kinematic and dynamic structural analysis of the most common types of deformational structures in rocks and their structural elements based on observations on outcrops, on aerial photographs and reflection seismic sections
Ability to perform an independent structural measurements on outcrops in order to collect data on orientation of structural elements with data presentation in stereographic projection and projection on structural map
Ability to perform an independent structural analysis of data presented on geological maps with description of structural characteristics of analysed area