COURSE GOALS:
The course introduces students to the experimental techniques, methods and procedures that were relevant for the innovations in experimental physics of the twentieth century. The main aim is emphasizing the discoveries in physics which, beside their scientific importance, have unquestionable significance in modern technologies and disciplines (medicine, chemistry, energetics and ecology). Attention is coherently focused on both, the qualitative understanding of physical ideas that led to the physics discovery, as well as, the quantitative and computational aspects of their practical application and usage. Another aim of the course is to embrace well achieved knowledge from the preceding courses (quantum physics, electrodynamics, mathematical methods of physics) into a complete scientific picture, from the phenomenological discovery, through mathematical and computer formulation, to perceptible practice. The course contains 16 obligatory topics covered by a reading list and 10 variable topics which address more recent physical achievements or dedicated laboratory visits to scientific institutions based on students' preferences.
LEARNING OUTCOMES ON THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
* demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena)
* evaluate clearly the orders of magnitude in situations which are physically different, but show analogies, thus allowing the use of known solutions in new problems;
* adapt the available models to new experimental data
* develop a personal sense of responsibility, given the free choice of elective/optional courses
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
* explain and understand the physical and mathematical structure of scientific problems
* identify the mathematical tools or elements that, by analogy, may be used in an individual physical problem
* understanding similarities and important differences in the phenomenology of the physical experiment
* demonstrate personal interest and initiative in issues that can trace future scientific research
* developing critical judgment respect various sources of scientific information
* comprehensibly and briefly express personal physical ideas and judgments
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
Obligatory topics:
1. Spectroscopic methods with an emphasis on optical spectroscopy: optical grating, Raman spectroscopy
2. Nuclear magnetic resonance: saturation and relaxation, measurement of relaxation times, determining the structure
3. Moessbauerov effect: observation of resonant scattering of gamma rays, observation gravitational red shift
4. Diffraction: Research spatial microstructure of the sample, structural function, diffraction on crystals
5. Lasers: stimulated emission, population inversion, semiconductor lasers, lasers with adjustable frequency, FEL
6. Holography: recording holograms, reproduction of threedimensional images, a mathematical description of the hologram recording
7. Vacuum Technologies: mechanical, diffusion and turbo molecular pumps, high and ultrahigh vacuum
8. Cryogenics: condenser gas, transportation of liquefied gases, the measurement of low temperatures
9. Astronomy: components radio telescope, the discovery of cosmic background radiation
10. Controlled fusion: criteria for continuous operation of a fusion reactor, tokamak, laserinduced fusion, muon catalysis
11. Radiopharmaceuticals and applications in medical diagnostics: the production of radionuclides, gamma camera
12. Josephson Effect and applications: combining tunnelling and superconductivity. Josephson junction, a SQUID
13. Exotic atoms: formation of exotic atoms, the difference between muon and hadron exotic atoms, muon spin rotation
14. Discovery of J/psi particle through intersecting beams: basic parameters of crossing beams, luminosity, detection systems
15. CP symmetry violation: kaon and strangeness, CP symmetry, regeneration, apparatus for detecting CP symmetry
16. Proof of the existence of at least two types of neutrino: neutrino oscillations
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Attendance, making at least one elected seminar, attending the organized visits to scientific institutions
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE STUDENTS':
* Statistical evaluation of attendance and activity (readings through Claroline system)
* Seminar (oral presentation excellence and content quality)
* Cooperation and communication during the semester (seminars and lectures group effort)
* Obligatory final oral examination, consists of a preliminary written part (40 min) and an oral part that typically takes place within a predefined test groups of students
* Oral exam has its own reproductive (formal knowledge) and problematic part
