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Croatian Flora
Code: 45065
ECTS: 9.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Toni Nikolić - Lectures
Lecturers: Toni Nikolić - Seminar

Vedran Šegota - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 45
Seminar 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Learning outcomes

Participants will be able to

1. Define biodiversity, to name and describe its main components
2. Use the international botanical standards
3. Indicate the main features of plant diversity in Croatia
1. Explain the basic concepts of flora threat assessment
2. Explain the concepts of endemism, define national endemism and give examples
3. Explain the phenomenon of invasiveness, define it at the national level and give examples
4. Describe and explain the economic potential of the national flora and give examples
5. Use flora mapping methods and to measure the population dynamics
6. Collect data on the flora of the selected area
7. Review and evaluate the flora of an area

Course content


1. Introductory settings, application of knowledge of flora, examples of application, data needs, recipients and providers, state of research and related problems, diversity of croatian flora
2. Diversity distribution by families, comparison with other areas, abiotic factors influencing diversity
3. Endangered flora and conservation, international and national legislation and conventions, risk assessment, the IUCN categories and meaning, basic settings for the proper estimations, regional adaptation
4. Condition of national flora, vulnerability assessments in Croatia, red books and lists, overview of the state of threat and major threats
5. Allochtonous and invasive plants, definitions and terminology, classification and standardization, presentation of the situation in Croatia, examples
6. Economic botany I, meaning the plants in the economy, standards for economic botany, the flora overview regarding to the economic values
7. Economic botany II, an overview of the most important families and examples, the origin of species in culture
8. Endemism, basic concepts and definitions, terminology, endemic species in Croatian flora, abundance and distribution, comparison with other areas, selected examples
9. Standards in botany, needs and solutions, TDWG, etc.
10. Research methods of plant diversity I, inventory, basic directions, preconditions and assumptions, determination, accessories and metarial, making a checklist, field and other work, examples
11. Research Methods of Plant Diversity II, flora mapping, direct and indirect mapping techniques, maps, forms and manuals
12. Research Methods of Plant Diversity III, MTB brid, UTM and other grids, the methods of geocoding localities
13. Methods of research of plant diversity III, tracking changes (monitoring), standard plots, measurement and assessment of frequency, density estimation, assessment of land cover, examples


Seminar hours are primarily used for making special surveys about the flora of selected area that is practically processed in the Fieldwork of botany (45066) (4909)
1. How to write a research paper, seminar, study or thesis
2. Overview of the examples of scientific and technical papers about the flora of some area
3. Methods of processing floristic data and display modes
4. Area selection criteria for field work and collection of existing data
5. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
6. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
7. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
8. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
9. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
10. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
11. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
12. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork
13. Write the study on the area explored in the fieldwork


Practical work with plant material, collections, Flora Croatica database:

1. Review of the literature related to the flora Croatian: Croatian Flora, Flora neighboring countries, Flora of the Mediterranean area and Europe, Monographs for genera / families, Illustrated monographs, Iconography, the International Code of Botanical, Virtual floras, Virtual Library; review the major botanists working on Croatian flora - Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Paul (Pál) Kitaibel, Muzio Giuseppe Spirito de 'Tommasini, Roberto Visiani, Joseph Kalasancije Schlosser, Louis (Farkas) Vukotinovic, Louis Rossi, Günther Ritter von Beck Mannagetta und Lerchenau, Arpad Degen, August von Hayek, Ivo Horvat, Čedomil Šilić
2. Herbariums: definition, role, organization, history, herbarium collections in Croatia; herbarium types, botanical nomenclature
3. The key for determination; types, roles; practical work with identification keys; determination of selected Croatian endemics
4. Visit to herbarium collections ZAHO and CHNM
5. Geocoding principles, practical work and problem solving
6. Introduction to the basics of working with FCD; practical work and problem solving
7. Introduction to the basics of working with FCD, authorized access; practical work and problem solving
8. Familiarisation with MapServer and FCD Geoportal, how to use MapServer/Geoportal for geocoding; how to use the GPS device; practical work and problem solving
9. Introduction to the methods for the analysis of floristic data; demonstration of professional and scientific papers and elemental analysis (taxonomic composition, proportion of endemic species, threats, invasivness, life forms, ...); practical work and problem solving
10. Practical work on plant species determination collested during field research
11. Practical work on plant species determination collested during field research
12. Practical work on plant species determination collested during field research
13. Practical work on plant species determination collested during field research
  1. Nikolić T. (1996): Herbarijski priručnik. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  2. Nikolić T. ur. (2010): Flora Croatica baza podataka. On-Line (http://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd). Botanički zavod, Prirodoslovno-matematički fakultet, Zagreb.
  3. Nikolić T., Topić J. ur. (2005): Crvena knjiga vaskularne flore Hrvatske. Ministarstvo kulture, Zagreb.
  4. Nikolić T., Mitić B., Boršić I. (2014): Flora hrvatske: invazivne biljke. Alfa, Zagreb, 6-296.
  5. Nikolić T. (2006): Flora. Priručnik za inventarizaciju i praćenje stanja. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb.
  6. Nikolić, T., Topić, J., Vuković, N. (2010): Botanički važna područja Hrvatske. Školska knjiga d.d. & Prirodoslovno-matematički fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb, 4-529.
  7. Nikolić T., Milović M., Bogdanović S., Jasprica N. (2015): Endemi u Hrvatskoj flori. Alfa, Zagreb, u tisku.
  8. Nikolić T. (2001): The diversity of Croatian vascular flora based on the Checklist and CROFlora database. Acta Bot. Croat. Vol. 60, No.1:49-67.
  9. Nikolić T., Rešetnik I. (2007): Plant uses in Croatia. Phytologia Balcanica Vol. 13, No.2:229-238.
  10. Boršić, I.; Milović, M.; Dujmović, I.; Bogdanović, S.; Cigić, P.; Rešetnik, I.; Nikolić, T.; Mitić, B. (2008): Preliminary check-list of invasive alien plant species (IAS) in Croatia. Nat. Croat. 17(2): 55-71.
  11. Mitić, B.; Boršić, I.; Dujmović, I.; Bogdanović, S.; Milović, M.; Cigić, P.; Rešetnik, I.; Nikolić, T. (2008): Alien flora of Croatia: proposals for standards in terminology, criteria and related database. Nat. Croat. 17(2): 73-90.
2. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory modul - Botany
Consultations schedule: