COURSE GOALS: Physics of Nanomaterials deals with materials that are in whatever sense structured on the nanometre dimensions. The goal of the course is to teach students the knowledge important for understanding the connection between the structure of materials and interactions that appear in such a material, the connection between structure and properties, and the impact of processing of materials on the structure and properties, with the special emphasis on the new properties and phenomena when the dimensions of characteristic structures reduce to the nanometre size. Starting from the basic physics using analogies and simple models, as well as advanced solid state concepts, the properties and behaviour of various nanomaterials will be introduced and explained. The need for a multidisciplinary approach in the design, research and application of nanomaterials is particularly emphasized. The aim of the course is to point to the attractiveness, opportunities, prospects and the need for research in the field of physics of nanomaterials and materials in general, in order to prepare the future teachers for teaching about such modern topics from physics connected with chemistry and technology.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
Upon completing the degree, students will be able to:
1. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.2. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena)
1.7. describe the framework of natural sciences
1.8. integrate physics and chemistry content knowledge with knowledge of pedagogy, psychology, didactics and teaching methods courses
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1. identify and describe important aspects of a particular physical phenomenon or problem
2.4. recognize and follow the logic of arguments, evaluate the adequacy of arguments and construct well supported arguments
2.10. teach science contextually, i.e., provide examples from everyday life when teaching abstract concepts
2.11. create a learning environment that encourages active engagement in learning and promotes continuing development of pupils' skills and knowledge
3. MAKING JUDGMENTS
3.1. develop a critical scientific attitude towards research in general, and in particular by learning to critically evaluate arguments, assumptions, abstract concepts and data
3.4. accept responsibilities in planning and managing teaching duties
3.5. demonstrate professional integrity and ethical behavior in work with pupils and colleagues
4. COMMUNICATION SKILL
4.1. present complex ideas clearly and concisely;
4.2. present their own research results at education or scientific meetings
5. LEARNING SKILLS
5.1. search for and use professional literature as well as any other sources of relevant information
5.2. remain informed of new developments and methods in physics, chemistry and education
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
After successful completion of the course Physics of Nanomaterials, the student will be able to:
1. Qualitatively explain the changes in the structure of the gradual transition from the bulk material through polycrystalline and microcrystalline and nanocrystalline materials to the nanometer sized clusters of atoms, and down to the amorphous state;
2. Qualitatively and quantitatively describe the processes of diffusion, and highlight important differences between bulk materials and nanomaterials, and in relation to that understand the structure changes and its irregularities caused with external influences;
3. Demonstrate different methods of obtaining metastable (nano) structures and other nanomaterials and understand the necessary prerequisites and outcomes in different conditions;
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the differences between the properties of bulk materials and properties of nanomaterials: structural, mechanical, thermal, conductive, magnetic, optical, electronic, and to demonstrate this on the selected examples;
5. Provide an overview of the characteristics of new types of advanced functional materials commonly associated with their nanostructure and qualitatively describe functioning of the nano-devices based on them;
6. Demonstrate the successful literature search and presentation of the most important phenomena in a given topic in the field of nanomaterials and successful talk about the topic to the audience;
7. Readily discuss the latest research results in the field of nanomaterials having autonomy in knowing the concepts and phenomena of it.
The course deals with the structure of materials, preparation of nanomaterials, methods of studying of their properties, different physical properties of nanomaterials in comparison to the massive materials, their application, as well as excursions to other disciplines, such as chemistry and nanomedicine / nanopatology / nanotoxicology, and an overview of some of the most modern functional nano-devices, and all connected with the latest scientific works in order to emphasize the state-of-the-art in given field.
In order to organize the classes, these topics are divided into the following nine chapters:
1. Introduction (2h): a historical introduction to nanomaterials and technology development, defining framework, motivation through unusual phenomena in nanomaterials.
2. Nanostructure (4h): fundamentals of crystal structure, the definition of nanomaterials, nanoparticles and clusters of atoms, different forms of nanomaterials on the example of carbon nanostructures.
3. Irregularities and diffusion: to nanomaterials (4h): Description of defects in the crystal, changing structural features from polycrystalline over microcrystalline to nanocrystalline materials, peculiarities in amorphous state, diffusion processes, differences in atomic diffusion from bulk materials to nanomaterials and amorphous materials.
4. Metastable materials, from solid solution to nanostructures (4h): phase diagrams, solid solutions, structure of solid solutions, long-range and short-range order, superstructure, metastable structures and their preparation, relaxation of structures, occurrence of different nanostructures.
5. Physical properties of materials: mechanical and similar (4h): influence of defects on the mechanical properties, designing suitable mechanical properties (hardening and strengthening) of materials through their nanostructuring, special forms of applicable materials.
6. Structural properties of special new materials (4h): Development of structural characteristics from bulk materials to nanomaterials, some special new materials: fullerene, graphene, nanotubes and nanowires, nanoporous materials, review of nanomedicine, nanotocsicology and nanopathology.
7. Transport phenomena in nanomaterials (2h): electrical conductivity in nanomaterials, the emergence of special effects like giant magnetoresistance, thermal conductivity of nanomaterials, thermoelectric effect, semiconductors.
8. Magnetism of nanomaterials (4h): occurrence and features of nanomagnets, magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles and their magnetic structures, single molecule nanomagnets, magnetism in metallic glasses, magnetic nanowires and thin films, nanocrystalline magnetic materials, the importance of nanostructuring for magneto-electric multiferroicity.
9. Electronic structure and special properties of nanomaterials (2h): density of states and low-dimensional conductivity, atomic microscopes, quantum dots and optical properties, electrical conductivity through the quantum dot and special devices based on it.
Within the seminars students present the review of the investigated literature on a given topic in field of nanomaterials. This complements the knowledge acquired at the lectures about the behavior of selected examples of nanomaterials or phenomena related to the world of nanometre dimensions, including fundamental physics at these scales and the application of nano-devices.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Students are required to regularly attend lectures and seminars and actively follow lectures and participate in the discussion stimulated issues. After the oral examination of the material, students are required to write an article and give a talk based on a literature review of the default interesting developments in the field of nanomaterials.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Final grade is based on the oral examination and written essay presented at a seminar talk. Oral examination consists in answering and discussion around three themes, with the sub-questions from other parts to verify the knowledge of the whole subject. The paper should be written in a review form of scientific text on given topic and a half-hour presentation should give a review of the theme instructively for the audience. Both the oral exam and seminar with a talk must be positively evaluated, and the final grade is the mean of these two components.
- R. W. Cahn and P. Haasen,eds, Physical Metallurgy Vol. I-III, North-Holland,
A. R. West: Basic State Chemistry, Wiley&Sons, New York, 2002.
R. Jenkins, R. L. Snyder: Introduction to X-ray Powder Diffractometry, Wiley&Sons,
New York, 1996.
- R. W. Cahn, Concise Encyclopedia of Materials Characterization, Elsevier, 2005.
W. D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering-An Introduction, Wiley&Sons, New
J. I. Gersten, F. W. Smith, The Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Wiley&Sons, New
C. Hammond, The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction, Oxford University Press,
W.F. Smith, Principles of Materials Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York,