COURSE GOALS: The aim of the course is acquaintance with the essential concepts of medical physics and application of physical methods in modern medicine with particular emphasis on the understanding of diagnostic and therapeutic methods in which radiation is used.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.1. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical and modern physics
1.2. demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena)
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1. identify and describe important aspects of a particular physical phenomenon or problem;
2.2. recognize and follow the logic of arguments, evaluate the adequacy of arguments and construct well supported arguments;
5. LEARNING SKILLS
5.1. search for and use professional literature as well as any other sources of relevant information;
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
Upon passing the course on Medical physics, the student will be able to:
* use the acquired knowledge in the field of radioactivity for solving the problems related to the measurement of radioactivity, the assessment of the absorbed dose in imaging techniques and radionuclide therapy
* understand relationship between interaction of radiation with dosimetric quantities: kerma, exposure and absorbed dose
* apply dosimetric concepts and calculate absorbed doses in photon and electron beam radiotherapy using dosimetry functions such as Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) and the Tissue-Phantom dose Ratio (TPR)
* qualitatively describe the principles of operation and purposes of the most important radiotherapy devices
* assess absolute and relative doses using appropriate dosimeters
* demonstrate knowledge of the principles of choice of parameters in the treatment planning of a specific localization in radiotherapy
* understand importance and methods of using imaging techniques in radiotherapy
* demonstrate knowledge of the properties and use of the main radionuclides in brachytherapy with an understanding of the importance of the implementation of the quality assurance program, with emphasis on the source calibration
* distinguish among methods of acquisition /formation of medical images and parameters important for determining the quality of medical imaging in radiology and nuclear medicine
* understand the problem of the reconstruction of images from projections, advantages over planar imaging and limitations
* demonstrate the basic knowledge of radiobiology with an emphasis on the practical use of the models in radiotherapy
* demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of radiation protection and security of the sources in radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine
Lectures per weeks (15 weeks in total):
1. Interaction of ionizing radiation (electrons and photons) with matter.
2. Basic dosimetry concepts and dosimetry quantities, and units.
3. Photon and electron beam dosimetry. Absolute, relative dosimetry and in-vivo dosimetry.
4. Clinical radiotherapy. Properties and application of radiotherapy units: kV X-ray therapy units, Co-60 units and linear accelerators.
5. Imaging in radiotherapy: conventional X-ray unit, simulator, CT simulator, portal imaging, cone beam CT (CBCT).
6. Radiotherapy treatment planning process. Computerized treatment planning: algorithms, implementation, speed, approximations and verification.
7. Brachytherapy: radiation sources, clinical techniques, source calibration, treatment planning and quality assurance.
8. Radionuclides, radioactivity measurements and radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.
9. Principles of radionuclide imaging (gamma camera, SPECT, PET). Diagnostic radiology imaging (X-ray, CT). Image reconstruction from projections. Hybrid imaging techniques (SPECT/CT, PET/CT).
10. Radiation protection in medicine. Introduction to radiobiology
Exercises, demonstrations and seminars are following lectures by content.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Regular attendance of the lectures and problem solving exercises-tutorials. Project assignment/seminar: presentation or a report submission is mandatory.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Grading and assessing the work of students during the semesters:
* Homework assignments
Grading at the end of semester:
* Final oral exam
Contributions to the final grade:
* 10% of the grade is carried by the results of the homework
* 20% of the grade is carried by the results of the presentation/report
* oral exam carries 70% of the grade.
- Vrtar M. Medicinska fizika. Interna skripta fizičkog odsjeka PMF-a, Zagreb 2004.
(dostupna za fotokopiranje od strane autora)
- 1. Podgorsak E.B. Review of radiation oncology physics, IAEA, Vienna, Austria 2003.
2. Cherry S.R., Sorenson J.A., Phelps M.E. Physics in nuclear medicine, 3rd ed. Saunders, An
Imprint of Elsevier Science, USA 2003.
3. Bushberg J.T., Seibert J.A., Leidholdt E.M., Boone J.M. The essential physics of medical
imaging. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1995.