COURSE GOALS: After finishing the course the student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of physical laws and principles of experimental techniques of electron microscopy. They should also be able to implement them in their future experimental work. Furthermore, they are expected to demonstrate basic operation on the transmission electron microscope.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
Students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the most important physics theories (logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena).
2. Perform experiments independently using standard techniques, as well as to describe, analyze and critically evaluate experimental data.
3. Comprehend the ethical characteristics of research and of the professional activity in physics.
4. Work in an interdisciplinary team.
5. Present one's own research or literature search results to professional as well as to lay audiences.
6. Develop the written and oral English language communication skills that are essential for pursuing a career in physics.
7. Search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required).
8. Remain informed of new developments and methods and provide professional advice on their possible range and applications.
9. Participate in projects which require advanced skills in modeling, analysis, numerical calculations and use of technologies.
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
1. Students are expected to be able to qualitatively understand and describe interactions of electrons with the matter.
2. They should be able to qualitatively and quantitatively describe different types of microscope.
3. They should be able to qualitatively describe principles of the image formation in electron microscope.
4. They should be able to qualitatively describe physical background of the material characterization with the method of electron microscopy.
5. They should be able to quantitatively interpret experimental features on the electron microscopy image.
Course topics by week:
1. Basics of electron microscopy. Application of electron microscopy and diffraction in the physics of materials, chemistry and geology.
2. Modern methods of materials characterization with analytical electron microscope. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM).
3. Quantitative and qualitative phase analysis with the X-ray scattering in the analytical electron microscope.
4. Transmission electron microscopy with diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), convergent beam electron diffraction.
5. Interpretation of transmission electron micrographs and diffraction in polycrystalline, single crystal and amorphous samples.
6. Diffraction contrast. Characterization of defects in the material. Burger vector determination, types of dislocations. Stacking faults.
7. Characterization of the defects from dark and bright field images.
8. Phase contrast. High-resolution image. Defect determination from the high-resolution image and Z-contrast with structural resolution below 0.1 nm.
9. Image processing for the purpose of the analysis of the defects in the crystals, dislocations, stacking faults, grain boundaries and phase boundaries. Structural resolution between 0.2 and 0.1 nm.
10. Convergent beam electron diffraction method. Determination of space groups, unit cell parameters and thickness of the sample.
11. Latest developments in the electron microscopy: determination of oxygen atomic sites and bonds in the cuprates, crystal structure determination from the electron microscope image.
12. Atomic scale imaging of the individual atoms doped in silicon. Investigation of nanocrystalline materials. Structure factor determination from the high-resolution image and from the electron diffraction.
13. Application of the Rietveld method on the electron diffraction image of the nanocrystalline material. Miller indices determination from the electron diffraction image.
14. Visit to the Laboratory for microstructural characterization of the Department of Physics and presentation of the basis of operating the high-resolution electron microscope.
15. Revision and systematization.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Students are required to attend at least 80% of lectures. Furthermore, they are required to pass two colloquiums (in the case of failing, the possibility will be given to take it once again), to write a seminar from the field of electron microscopy and to solve one practical example.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Final grade is determined on the basis of the active participation in the discussions during the lectures, and the average value of grades obtained in colloquiums, seminar and practical example.
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2. D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science, Plenum Press, New York 1996.
3. J.J. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy , C. Fiori, E. Lihshin, Electron Microscopy and X- ray Microanalysis, Plenum Press, New York / London, 1984.
- 1. ELECTRON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY,Novel Approaches for Structure Determination of Nanosized Materials, the 36th international crystallographic course, Erice-Sicily, 9 to 20 June 2004. eds T.E. Weirich, J. Labar and X.D. Zou, Nato ASI Series C, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, (2004), in press.
2. J. C. H. Spence: High-Resolution Electro Microscopy, third edition, Oxford University Press, 2003.