Through different laboratory assignments, the students will get to know advanced concepts of experimental work in the field of condensed matter physics, and develop independence in standard part of research activities. The students will expand their knowledge acquired on courses Condensed matter physics 1 and 2 through experimental work at specific problems, which will thus contribute to their deeper understanding of specific topics. They will come into contact with advanced instruments used for measurement of physical parameters, train themselves to independently use them and learn how to build their measurement setup in order to achieve the required result.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME
1 KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.1 Describe the state of the art in - at least- one of the presently active physics specialties
2 APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1 Identify the essentials of a process/situation and set up a working model of the same or recognize and use the existing models
2.2 Adapt available models to new experimental data
2.3 Perform experiments independently using standard techniques, as well as to describe, analyze and critically evaluate experimental data;
3 MAKING JUDGEMENTS
3.1 Work with a high degree of autonomy, even accepting responsibilities in project planning and in the managing of structures
3.2 Develop a personal sense of responsibility, given the free choice of elective/optional courses
4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS
4.1 Present one's own research or literature search results to professional as well as to lay audiences
4.2 Develop the written and oral English language communication skills that are essential for pursuing a career in physics
5 LEARNING SKILLS
5.1 Search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required)
5.2 Carry out research by undertaking a PhD
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE
By completing the course "Solid state physics -laboratory exercise", the student will be able to:
- Independently use tools and instruments that are typically present in standard condensed matter physics research laboratory
- Independently handle a cryogenic cooling system
- Independently analyse the measured data, compare them with existing models and graphically show their (dis)agreement
- Present the results of performed research in the form of a report and a talk
- Connect existing theoretical knowledge of condensed matter physics to the studied phenomena and understand how the measurement setup operates
- Independently find a system which the student can study with available measurement setup
During the semester, the students will perform measurements on topics from condensed matter physics:
Electron diffraction - diffraction of electrons on a sample of graphite, diffraction patterns are formed which are then used to determine typical crystallographic dimensions;
Conductivity of semiconductors - through temperature variation of electrical resistance on a semiconductor sample, the student can determine the size of the energy gap between the conducting and valent band;
Measurement of magnetoresistance and detection of anisotropy - students measure magnetic field dependence of magnetoresistance of a Bi single-crystal sample, and determine its angle dependence, which reveals the anisotropy of the local symmetry;
Hall effect - students perform magnetic field dependence of Hall effect on a doped semiconductor;
Seebeck effect - determination of the Seebeck effect, i.e. thermo current depending on the size of the heat gradient;
Peltier heat pump - understanding the principles of heat pump operation;
Observation of a temperature dependent paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition - by measuring the temperature dependence of capacity of the resonant circuit we detect the onset of a phase transition into the ferroelectric state;
Observation of a temperature dependent magnetic (antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic) phase transition - through measurement of susceptibility of a magnetic sample, and its temperature dependence the student observes the onset of (anti)ferromagnetism.
Observation of a temperature dependent glass phase transition - by slowly varying the temperature of a glycerol sample the student observes the onset of a liquid-glass transition.
Observation of a magnetic domains - by observing polarized light passing through a ferrimagnetic sample with a microscope the student observes formation of ferromagnetic domains and their dependence on external magnetic field. Through detection of the output current of a photosensitive diode the student measures magnetization and observes hysteretic behaviour.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS
Students must arrive to the class prepared for a specific assignment. Their knowledge is tested before they start working on the assignment, after which they build their measuring setup and perform measurements.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS
The total mark of is formed based on individual marks from oral knowledge tests of specific assignments, mark of the report and mark of the presentation at the end of the semester. All three marks must be positive in order for a total mark is positive. The student must, during the tests and in the report, show high level of understanding of physical aspects of the studied phenomena, understand the operation of the measurement setup, analyse and discuss obtained results. During the presentation, the student must give a complete and condensed presentation of his/hers work on a specific assignment. The presentation must include measurement description, obtained results and discussion of their (dis)agreement from the existing models. The student must be ready to answer all the questions related to the presented research.
- Tiskana uputstva za praktikum (samo za internu upotrebu).
- C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 1971., New York (ili hrvatski prijevod).
V. Šips, Uvod u fiziku čvrstog stanja, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1991.