The principal aim of the course is to give students an introduction into the physics of stars and galaxies, with basics of the observational cosmology and Big Bang theory.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1.KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.1.demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical
and modern physics;
1.2.demonstrate a thorough knowledge and understanding of the most important physics theories
(logical and mathematical structure, experimental support, described physical phenomena);
2.APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1.identify and describe important aspects of a particular physical phenomenon or problem;
2.2.recognize and follow the logic of arguments, evaluate the adequacy of arguments and
construct well supported arguments;
2.3.use mathematical methods to solve standard physics problems;
3.1.develop a critical scientific attitude towards research in general, and in particular by
learning to critically evaluate arguments, assumptions, abstract concepts and data;
4.2.present complex ideas clearly and concisely;
5.2.search for and use professional literature as well as any other sources of relevant
5.3.remain informed of new developments and methods in physics and education;
5.4.develop a personal sense of responsibility for their professional advancement and
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
By the end of the course, the student should be able to:
1. Describe fundamental astrophysical quantities and link them to stellar spectral
2. Understand a role of stellar mass and radius with a set of differential equations
of the stellar structure
3. Qualitatively describe radiative transfer in stars and role of convection;
4. Qualitatively describe thermonuclear process in stellar interiors and origin of
5. Understand and describe stellar evolution and different evolutionary phases (the main
sequence, red giants, white dwarfs, supernovae and neutron stars, and black holes);
explain importance and role of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram
6. Describe structure of Milky Way, its rotation and kinematics of stars and role of
dark matter; qualitatively describe interstellar matter (gas and dust);
7. Clasify galaxies and describe their main properties;
8. Understand role of the cluster of galaxies and the effect of gravitational lensing;
9. Describe the main issues of the observational cosmology and understand fundamental
observational findings (expansion of the Universe and Hubble law, background radiation,
outcomes of the primordial nucleosynthesis and the origin of elements);
10. Describe fundaments of the Big Bang theory and problem of dark matter and dark
energy in the Universe
1. Fundamental astrophysical quantities (brightness and colour, luminosity). Photometry.
Spectral classification. Effective temeperature. Spectroscopy.
2. Binary stars. Stellar masses and radii. Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram. Equations of
3. Radiative transfer in stars. Role of convection.
4. Stellar models. Thermonuclear process in the stellar interiors and nucleosynthesis.
5. Stellar evolution. From the Main Sequence to red giants. Degenerate matter and white
dwarfs. Evolution of Sun.
6. Variable stars and role of the cepheids.
7. Supernovae and neutron stars. Balck holes.
8. Evolution of binary stars. Cataclysmic binary stars.
9. X-ray sources. Interstallar material (gas and dust);
10. Star formation (Jeans mass);
11. Sprial structure of Milky Way. Rotation and kinematics of stars in Milky Way. Dark
12. Classification of galaxies. Properties of sprial and elliptical qalaxies. Galaxy
formation. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars.
13. Cluster of galaxies. Local Group of galaxies. Large scale structure of the Universe.
Hidden matter. Gravitational lensing.
14. Observational cosmology. Expansion of the Universe. Hubble law. Distance ladder.
15. Origin of the Universe. Big Bang theory. Background radition. Primordial nucleosynthesis
and origin of the elements.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Regular lecture attendance, active participation in tutorials. Passing 3 mid-term exams.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Final exam is in written form. Final grade is a combination of grades obtained in
mid-term exams (50%) and final exam (50%).
- D. A. Ostlie & B. W. Carroll, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1996
- H. Karttunen i dr., Fundamental Astronomy, Springer, Berlin, 2000