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Bacteriology and Virology

Code: 40360
ECTS: 9.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Mladen Krajačić - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Dijana Škorić - Lectures
Lecturers: Marina Drčelić, mag. biol. exp. - Practicum
izv. prof. dr. sc. Tomislav Ivanković - Practicum
dr. sc. Lucija Nuskern Karaica - Practicum
izv. prof. dr. sc. Martina Šeruga Musić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 60
Practicum 60
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)

1. Acquiring conceptual understanding of prokaryotic cell structure and function through the ability of recognising main characteristics that distinguish prokaryotic life from the eukaryotic one and grouping them in smaller taxa.
2. Gaining insights into diversity of prokaryotic life by differentiating their cell structure, physiological principles and preferable environmental conditions.
3. Understanding the importance of viruses and their roles in the biosphere through analysing their structure, replication cycles, interactions with the hosts and the environment.
4. Breaking the paradigm of viruses as pathogens by finding and analysing the examples of viruses as tools in research, therapeutic agents and environmental or evolutionary factors.
5. Acquiring basic information about the existence of subviral pathogens through analysing the most important examples of satellite virus, viroid and prion diseases and their impact.
6. Understanding the principles of microbiology and mastering fundamentals in molecular biology by using viral, bacterial and archaeal life-cycle models and distinguishing them from eukarya.
7. Understanding the role of viruses and prokaryotic organisms in the development of molecular biology, evolution and life sciences in general by analysing and reinterpreting historical milestone experiments and discoveries.
8. Developing competencies for understanding the advanced concepts in molecular biology and related advanced courses later on in the study curricula by analysing and reinterpreting the fundamentals of bacteriology and virology.
9. Developing fundamental bacteriology skills by mastering main methods in cultivating bacteria, isolation of pure cultures, measurement of microbial growth and the assessment of their physiological properties.
10. Developing fundamental virology laboratory skills by mastering methods for growing plant, bacterial and animal viruses, virus purification, and serological identification.
11. Improving generic laboratory skills by performance analyses of the laboratory methods.



1. Historical overview of bacteriology
2. Size and morphology of bacterial cells
3. Outer structure of the bacterial cells: membrane, cell wall types, peptidoglycan
4. Biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan, mode of action of the antibiotic penicillin, wallless prokaryotes
5. Capsule, flagella, fimbriae
6. Inner structure: nucleoid, plasmid, mesosome, ribosomes, pigments, inclusions, endospores
7. Basic principles of bacterial genetics (DNA role proofs, recombination, conjugation, transduction)
8. Bacterial physiology, metabolic types of bacteria
9. Phototrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and their ecological significance
10. Bacterial toxins, basic principles of bacterial diseases, bacterial enzymes
11. Influence of physical and chemical factors on bacterial and archeal organisms:
12. Fermentation: significance for bacteria, application in food technology, significance in human physiology
13. Role of bacteria in cycling of biotic elements and energy
14. Archaea: comparisons to bacteria and eukarya, significance in eukaryotic evolution
15. Essentials in prokaryotic molecular biology

1. The development of the virus concept through history and the definition of a virus (with examples from minute to giant viruses).
2. The importance of virus research in biology (viruses as disease agents, environmental, ecological and evolutionary factors, viruses in biotechnology and structural biology).
3. Methods in virus research (cultivation, visualization, purification, quantification of viruses).
4. Virion constituents and their roles depicted through examples of simple and complex viral particles.
5. Subviral pathogens, their types and basic features, examples of diseases with subviral aetiology.
6. Phases of viral cycles: adsorption, penetration, synthesis of virion constituents.
7. Phases of viral cycles: strategies of viral genome transcription and translation, virion assembly and exit from cells.
8. Viruses as specialized parasites of different cell types: bacteriophages, animal, plant and other viruses.
9. Mutations and other evolution mechanisms of viruses-examples of slow and fast evolving viruses.
10. Biological basis of viruses: influenza.
11. Biological basis of viruses: polio, types of virus vaccines.
12. Retroviruses, AIDS.
13. Oncogenic viruses.
14. Interferon, antiviral chemotherapeutics.
15. Taxonomy of viruses, emerging viruses.


Bacteriological laboratory
1. Bacterial cell types
2.-4. Techniques of staining and microscopy of bacterial cells
5.-6. Isolation of bacteria from different substrates
7.-10. Cultivation of bacteria on artificial media
11.-15. Determination of bacterial physiological processes.

Virology laboratory
1.-2. Plant virus cultivation methods
3.-4. Cultivating animal viruses in embrionated eggs
5.-6. Virus symptoms (cellular and whole organism level)
6.-8. Serological methods in virus research
9.-11. Virus partial purification methods
11.-12. Virus complete purification methods
13.-15. Virus purity and concentration analyses.
  1. Stilinović B., Hrenović J. (2009): Praktikum iz bakteriologije. Kugler, Zagreb, p. 199.
    Juretić, N., 2002: Osnove biljne virologije, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 319 str.
    Presečki, V. i sur., 2003: Virologija, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, 343 str.
  2. Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P., Klein, D.A., 1996: Microbiology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston.
    Atlas, R. M., 1997: Principles of Microbiology. WBC McGraw-Hill, Boston.
    Nester, E. W., Anderson, D. G., Roberts, C. E., Pearsall, N. N., Nester, M. T., 2001: Microbiology. McGraw-Hill, Boston.
    Matthews, R. E. F., 1991: Plant Virology, 3rd izd. Academic Press, NY, 835 str.
    Cann, A. J., 2005: Principles of Molecular Virology. 4th izd. Academic Press, NY, 332 str.
    Poglavlja iz specijaliziranih udžbenika i izvorni znanstveni članci prema odabiru nastavnika.
  3. Strauss J. H. & Strauss E. G. Viruses and Human Disease. 2nd edition, 2008, Academic Press.
    Poglavlja iz specijaliziranih udžbenika i izvorni znanstveni članci prema odabiru nastavnika.
  4. Flint S. J., Enquist L. W., Racaniello V. R., Skalka A. M., Principles of Virology (3rd edition), ASM Press, Washington DC, USA.
  5. Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton CJ (2008) Prescott's Microbiology 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, Boston
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Cell Biology
3. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule:
  • prof. dr. sc. Dijana Škorić:

    By appointment (Please, send an e-mail to make an appointment.)