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Code: 35804
ECTS: 10.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Antun Alegro - Lectures
izv. prof. dr. sc. Marija Gligora Udovič - Lectures
Lecturers: Marija Gligora Udovič - Practicum
Nikola Koletić - Practicum
Anja Rimac - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 60
Practicum 60
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Learning outcomes

1. Understand general concepts in botany.
2. Analyse the basic concepts of phylogenetic evolution of autotrophic organisms: algae and plants.
3. Analyze the theoretical concepts in biology and develop awareness about diversity and variability of photosynthetic organisms in molecular research and nature protection.
4. Create scientific thinking and critical attitude about algae and plants and their role in the nature.
5. Develop the ability to recognize individual taxonomic groups of algae and plants.
6. Analyze and synthesize basic facts and concepts about morphology, physiology, development and reproduction of algae and plants.
7. Adopt a basic knowledge and skills in implementation of methods in complex scientific tasks
8. Adopt a basic knowledge about fungi.

Classes are organized in 15 working weeks
First part of the course (Algae and Introduction to Fungi) 5 working weeks (20 hours of lectures and 20 hours of practicum)


1. Algae in Biotic Associations; Scientific and technological application of algae in monitoring waters
Algal diversity and relationships in this part of the course include descriptions of items like cell structure, shapes, types of reproduction, distribution, role in the living world, taxonomy and ecological importance of the following groups of algae:
2. Cyanobacteria
3. Endosymbiosis and diversification of Eukaryotic Algae, Glaucophytes and Chlorarachniophytes
4. Green Algae - Archaeplastida: Glaucophyta, Chloroplastida, Prasinophyceans, Ulvophyceans, Trebouxiophyceans Chlorophyceans, Charophytes.
5. Excavata, Euglenozoa, Euglenida
6. Red Algae Archaeplastida: Rhodophyceae
7. Photosynthetic Stramenopiles: Diatoms
8. Photosynthetic Stramenopiles: Chrysophyceans, Synurophyceans, Dictyochophyceans, Xanthophyceans, Phaeophyceans
9. Cryptomonads and Haptophytes
10. Dinoflagellates Chromalveolata: Alveolata, Dinozoa
11. Fungi -Introduction to Mycota

Practicum closely follows the lessons. Through practical work and independent tasks students learn about the methods of algae investigation, the taxonomy, morphology and importance of each algal group in nature. The part related to fungi include students' visit to the fungi exhibition.

1. Cyanobacteria
2. Green Algae Archaeplastida: Chloroplastida, Ulvophyceans, Chlorophyceans, Charophytes
3. Euglenozoa, Euglenida
4. Red Algae Archaeplastida: Rhodophyceae
5. Photosynthetic Stramenopiles: Diatoms, Chrysophyceans, Synurophyceans, Dictyochophyceans, Xanthophyceans
6. Brown algae Photosynthetic Stramenopiles: Phaeophyceans
7. Dinoflagellates Dinozoa

Second part of the course (Land plants) 10 working weeks (40 hours of lectures and 40 hours of practicum)

1. Land plants - evolutionary origin of land plants and adaptations to the terrestrial environments; Plant tissues - meristems (primary and secondary meristems)
2. Plant tissues - permanent tissues (parenchyma, dermal tissues, absorptive tissues, vascular tissues, mechanical tissues, secretory tissues)
3. Wood structure and secondary tissue systems
4. Morphology of basic plant organs - root, stem and leaf
5. Morphology of reproductive organs and life cycles of land plants
6. Bryophytes - hornworts, liverworts and mosses
7. Pterydophytes - fossil groups, lycophytes and ferns (Psilotidae, Equisetidae, Marattiidae i Polypodiidae)
8. Gymnosperms - fossil groups, ginkgo, cycads, conifers and gnetums
9. Angiosperms - fossil groups, basal orders, Magnolianae
10. Angiosperms - Lilianae
11. Angiosperms - Eudicotyledons 1 (basal Eudicotyledons, Rosidae I)
12. Angiosperms - Eudicotyledons 2 (Rosidae II, Asteranae)

1. Plant tissues - meristems, dermal tissues, mechanical tissues, vascular tissues, parenchyma, secretory tissues
2. Basic plant organs - structure of root, stem and leaf, secondary growth
3. Transformations of basic plant organs
4. Bryophytes - liverworts and mosses
5. Pterydophytes - lycophytes, horsetails and ferns
6. Gymnosperms - ginkgo, cycads and conifers
7. Angiosperms - Nyphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae
8. Angiosperms - Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae
9. Angiosperms - Asteraceae, Liliaceae, Poaceae, Orchidaceae
  1. Denffer D. von, Ziegler H. (1988): Botanika. Morfologija i fiziologija, 2. izdanje. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  2. Mägdefrau K., Ehrendorfer F. (1984): Botanika. Sistematika, evolucija i geobotanika. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  3. Nikolić T. ed. (2007): Botanički praktikum On-Line. (hypertext dokument http://croatica.botanic.hr/praktikum/home.htm), PMF, Zagreb.
  4. Graham, L, J Graham & L Wilcox. 2009. Algae, 2e. Benjamin Cummings (Pearson), San Francisco, CA
  5. Lee, R.E., 1999. Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  6. NIKOLIĆ, T., 2013: Sistematska botanika. Raznolikost i evolucija biljnog svijeta. Alfa, Zagreb.
  7. Domac R. (1994): Flora Hrvatske. Priručnik za određivanje bilja. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  8. Nikolić T., Topić J. eds. (2005): Crvena knjiga vaskularne flore Hrvatske. Ministarstvo kulture, Zagreb.
  9. Šugar I. (1990): Latinsko-hrvatski i hrvatsko-latinski botanički leksikon. JAZU, Zagreb.
  10. Viličić, D., 2002: Fitoplankton Jadranskoga mora. Biologija i taksonomija. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  11. Wetzel R.G. (2001): Limnology, Lake and River Ecosystems.. Academic Press. A Harcout Science and Technology Company. London.
  12. MARCHI, P., PEPE D'AMATO, E., BIANCHI, G., 2012: Famiglie di piante vascolari italiane: 1-140. Sapienza. Universitá Editrice, Roma.
  13. BEENTJE, H., 2010: Plant glossary - an illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Kew Publishing, Kew.
  14. SIMPSON, M. G., 2010: Plant Systematics. Elsevier Academic Press.
  15. SPRING, O., BUSCHMANN, H., 1998: Grundlagen und Methoden der Pflanzensystematik. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim.
  16. STUESSY, T. F., 2009: Plant taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New York.
  17. BECK, CH. B., 2010: An introduction to plant structure and development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  18. CUTLER, D. F., BOTHA, T., STEVENSON, D. WM., 2008: Plant anatomy. Blackwell Publishing, Malden-Oxford-Carlton.
  19. EVERT, R. F., 2006: Esau's plant anatomy. Willey-Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey.
  20. ESCHRICH, W., 1995: Funktionelle Pflanzenanatomie. Springer Verl., Heidelberg.
  21. HARDER, L. D., BARRERR, S.C.H., 2006: Ecology and evolution of flowers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  22. RONSE DE CRAENE, L. P., 2010: Floral diagrams. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  23. INGROUILLE, M.J., 2006: Plants-diversity and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  24. RANKER, T.A., HAUFLER, CH.H., (eds.) 2008: Biology and evolution of ferns and lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  25. GOFFINET, B., SHAW, A.J., 2009: Bryophyte biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  26. VANDERPOORTEN, A., GOFFINET, B., 2009: Introductions to bryophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  27. WILLIS, K.J., MCELWAIN, J.C., 2014: The evolution of plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  28. TAKHTAJAN, A., 2009: Flowering plants. Springer.
2. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule: