Contents of this course aim to explain contemporary theories and concepts in the field of ecotoxicological sciences as well as their basis. The objective of the course is to enable understanding of the process and methodology of diagnosing and quantification of the negative effects of the pollution on the ecosystem.
- to indentify chemicals that, due to their toxicity and presence in the environment, represent threat for the living world, understanding of mechanisms of their toxic action and detection of their sources and sinks in the environment,
- to acquire knowledge on biological methods using all levels of biological organisation (from molecular level to the level of ecosystems) that can be used for diagnosing and quantification of disturbances in the ecosystem caused by chemical (and also physical and biological) pollution,
- to be able to create objectively and scientifically based evaluation of negative impact of pollution on the living world based on the outcomes of conducted research and available informations,
- to be able to select and use appropriate biological methods for the detection of pollution effects on the ecosystem.
1. Basic concepts in toxicology, history of toxicology, toxicity, sublethal and lethal effects, measurement of toxicity, quantitative aspects of toxicity: dose-effect and dose-time relationship, acute and chronic toxicity, no adverse effect level, aditive effect, sinergistic effect, quantitative ratio of structure and activity, selective toxicity, hormesis
2. Review of major classes of pollutants (anorganic, organic...) and their mechanisms of toxicity, definitions of xenobiotics
3. Insuficient knowledge on the toxicity of currently known chemicals, standard toxicology and ecotoxicology tests, REACH, maximal allowed concentrations of toxic chemicals in environment, toxicity of mixtures
4. Dispersal of substances in the environment (water, soil and atmosphere), emission, imission, transmission, distribution, adsorption, transformation, resistency, adaptation, persistency and degradation of pollutants, dilution paradigm and boomerang paradigm, advantages and disadvantages of chemical analysis use in prediction of consequences on the biosphere - biological availability of the pollutant
5. Pathways of entrance and distribution of potentially toxic compounds in the organism - ADME principle (adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion), exposition, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, bioconcentration, biomagnification, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, (bio)inactivation, processing and excretion mechanisms, abiotic and biotic factors influencing toxicity
6. Biological transformation/biotransformation: Phase I. reactions (mixed function oxidase system): detoxification, bioinactivation, bioactivation; Phase II reactions and its enzymes
7. Definition and history of ecotoxicology, its interdisciplinarity (environmental chemistry, toxicology, ecology), most known examples of ecotoxicological problems (DDT, methyl mercury and Minamata bay etc.), Global changes caused by anthropogenic impact, acid rains, greenhouse effect, persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
8. Causal relationship of changes caused by the pollution from molecular and cellular level over the level of the organism and to the level of populations, communities and ecosystems; Effects of pollutants on the populations, communities and ecosystems, bioindicator species, diversity indices, biotic indices
9. Methods of determing and measuring changes caused by the pollution/toxicant on the environment: toxicity tests-bioassays, biomonitoring, biomarkers - definition and their categorization (biomarkers of exposition and effect, specific and non specific biomarkers)
10. Changes caused by toxicants on the level of the organism, organs and tissues:
11. Changes caused by toxicants on the molecular and cellular level
12. Endocrine modulators, feminization/masculinization
13. Ecogenotoxicology, ecotoxicogenomics, evolutionary toxicology
14. Biological pollution: spreading of the alochthonous plant and animal species and its consequences on the ecosystems
15. Risk assessment: for humans and for the environment (ecotoxicological risk assessment).
Practical work will be held according to course contents (syllabus).
- Analitika okoliša (2013) Ašperger D, Babić S, Bolanča T, Darbra RM, Ferina S, Ginebreda A, Horvat AJM, Kaštelan-Macan M, Klobučar G, Macan J, Mutavdžić Pavlović D, Petrović M, Sauerborn Klobučar R, Štambuk A, Tomašić V, Ukić Š. Hinus, Zagreb, str. 294
- Principles of ecotoxicology 2nd ed. (2001) Walker CH, Hopkin SP, Sibly RM, Peakall DB, Taylor & Francis
- Environmental toxicity testing (2005) Thompson KC, Wadhia K, Loibner AP (Eds.) Blackwell Publishing Ltd.,