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Human Physiology

Code: 47051
ECTS: 5.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Vesna Benković - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Domagoj Đikić - Lectures
Lecturers: dr. sc. Haidi Arbanasić - Practicum
v. pred. dr. sc. Julija Erhardt - Practicum
dr. sc. Anica Horvat Knežević - Practicum
dr. sc. Barbara Nikolić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 45
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Explain the basic concepts of general physiology (homeostasis, negative and positive feedback, diffusion, osmosis, isoosmotic and isotonic Na/K pump, buffers and acid-base balance, etc.).
2. Connect the anatomical structure and function of organ systems needs to maintain homeostasis and normal function of the human body.
3. Analyse the function of the control system. Explain the principles of autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and neuroendocrine stimulation.
4. Elucidate different types of muscle actin role, myosin and troponin in skeletal muscle contraction. Conclude the similarities and differences in the function of different types of muscle.
5. Define and connect the function of the respiratory and renal systems. Explain how the kidney and breathing mechanism to regulate the pH of the blood plasma. Distinguish between metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
6. Demonstrate anatomical and physiological principles and processes in the human body.
7. Analyse the foundation principles of interdependence structure and function, and security mechanisms for the preservation of life.
8. Analyse the functions of the digestive system and linked to basic consumption disorders predict the consequences of the impaired biometric parameters and metabolic rate.
9. Analyse the functions of the human body and apply the acquired knowledge with the aim of responsible behaviour towards their own health and the health of other people.
10. Apply scientific facts in preparation tasks for students to teaching biology of man.


1. Definition and brief description of historical development of physiology. The principles of relationship structure and function (homeostasis, the minimum consumption of energy and matter, rationality and security functions), physiology of the organism in the strategy of physiological events, chemical and physical principles in physiology.
2. Transport mechanisms in cells and tissues. Physiology of cell membrane structure. The formation and significance of the electrical gradient, bioelectricity and membrane potential.
3. Generation of action potentials and signals on membrane structures. Physiology of animal organ systems and integrative physiology.
4. Communication within and between neurons. Signal transmission. General physiological properties of the senses. The chemical senses. Mechanical senses. Temperature sensor. Vision.
5. Functions of the autonomic nervous system. Central integrative systems.
6. Endocrine control mechanisms, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas.
7. Hypothalamic control. Neurohormones. Cellular mechanisms of action of hormones. Physiological effects of hormones. Glands with external secretion. Energy excretion.
8. Basics of muscle contraction. Mechanics and regulation of muscle contraction. Energy muscle contraction. Physiology of smooth, striated and cardiac muscle.
9. Heart function. General circulatory system. Physiology of the heart. Hemodynamics. Peripheral circulation. Regulation of circulation.
10. Breathing and breath control. Regulation of gas exchange.
11. Physiology of digestion.
12. Kidneys. Electrolyte balance and regulation of acid-base balance; calcium, phosphorus homeostasis and skeletal system, regulation of body temperature.
13. Blood and its physiological role; the defence of the organism and the immune response.
14. Physiology of reproduction; pregnancy, foetal development and lactation; physiology of sexuality and sexual response of man, sexual dysfunction and contraception.
15. Analysis of the fundamental principles of interdependence structure and function.

1. Laboratory animals (mice, rats, frogs). Handling animals.
2. Maintaining the animals. Highly related strains of animals. Routes of administration of the substance, anaesthesia and analgesia animals. The Animal Welfare Act.
3. Transference of substances through the membrane. Diffusion of colour in the agar. The behaviour of erythrocytes in solutions of different tonicity.
4. Counting of blood cells.
5. Preparation differential cell count (DCC).
6. Types of blood cells - vertebrates and invertebrates comparison.
7. Haematocrit. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum and plasma. Detection of fibrinogen by Howe. Bleeding time and clotting time.
8. Breathing. Donders lung model. Qualitative detection of CO2 in the inspiratory and expiratory air.
9. Lung volumes and capacities - static spirometry.
10. Kidneys. Buffering properties of serum and plasma. Acid-base balance.
11. Nervous impulse. Neuromuscular transmission. Termination of the impulse conduction through the nerve anaesthetized.
12. Muscles. Myographic curve. Contraction of chilled and heated muscle Addiction size of muscle contraction on the strength of the stimulus. Summation of impulses.
13. Heart. The contraction of isolated heart. The law "all or nothing" on the frog heart. The effect of elevated temperature and reduced heart function. Effect of calcium and potassium ions on the heart. The influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the heart. Centres of heart automation - ligatures of Stannius. Premature systole.
14. ECG.
15. Digestion. Insulin and diabetes.
  1. A.C. Guyton. Fiziologija čovjeka i mehanizmi bolesti 5 izdanje, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, 1994.
  2. R. Rhoades and R. Pflanzer. Human Physiology, 4th ed., Thomson - Brooks/Cole 2003.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Attended : Fundamentals of Histology and Embryology
Attended : Human Anatomy
Attended : Organic Chemistry 1

Examination :
Passed : Fundamentals of Histology and Embryology
Passed : Human Anatomy
Passed : Organic Chemistry 1
6. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule: