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Genetics
Code: 40364
ECTS: 9.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Višnja Besendorfer - Lectures
doc. dr. sc. Nenad Malenica - Lectures
Lecturers: Višnja Besendorfer - Seminar
Nenad Malenica - Seminar
Take exam: Studomat
English level:

1,0,0

All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.
Load:

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 60
Seminar 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Description:
Learning outcomes:
1.Understanding the principles of inheritance as well its molecular mechanisms at the individual and population level. Recognizing and understanding classical and modified Mendelian segregation ratios. Connecting the classical Mendelian ratios with chromosomal and molecular basis of segregation.
2.Understanding the principles of gene linkage, sex-linked traits and cytoplasmic inheritance as well as their relation to classical Mendelian segregation.
3.Identifying and describing mutations at chromosome and molecular level.
4.Learn how to use utilize classical genetic approaches as well as molecular techniques in experimental design. Application of basic statistical tests on experiment-acquired data.
5.Problem solving and interpretation of scientific text (text books, original scientific papers).
Course content:
This is an introductory genetic course where students will get an integral knowledge of genetics, principles of heredity and principles of molecular genetics, population genetics and genetic engineering. The special attention is given to practical work where students will develop the basic skills in genetic crossing using various model organisms like fruit fly, Arabidopsis thaliana and E.coli through small projects. Students will apply core techniques of molecular biology to detect transgenes in GMO plants and introduce new genes in target organisms via transformation. Students will be trained basic approaches in solving quantitative and qualitative population genetics problems.
LECTURES
1.Genetics, science of heredity. Brief overview of the modern history of genetics. Mendelian principles of heredity: Law of segregation and independent segregation. Genes and chromosomes.
2.Allelic interactions; modification of phenotype ratios in F2 generation. Epistasis. Multiple alleles.
3.Gene linkage, recombination and gene mapping in eukaryotes.
4.Sex determination. Sex linkage and pedigree analysis. Sex determination and dosage compensation.
5.Chromosome aberrations; changes in chromosome number and structure.
6.Induced chromosome aberrations.
7.Cytoplasmic inheritance, mitochondria, chloroplasts, infective molecules, bacterial plasmids.
8.Population genetics, quantitative and evolutionary genetics, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and mating systems, processes that change allelic frequencies. Application of statistic methods in quantitative genetics.
9.Structure and replication of DNA.
10.Transcription and translation.
11.Gene mutations and mechanism of DNA repair and recombination.
12.Genetics of bacteria. Mechanisms of genetic variation in bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction.
13.Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes, Lac-operon (inducible system), Trp-operon (repressive system).
14.Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Eukaryote chromosomes: nature of DNA sequences, chromatin organization and epigenetics. Genetic basis of the cancer.
GENETICS LAB
1.Mendelian segregation I (monohybrid cross)
segregation analysis of a recessive mutation in A.thaliana
segregation analysis of a dominant trait (transgene) in A.thaliana
chi-square testing of experimental and theoretical segregation classes
genetic problems solving
2.Mendelian segregation II (dihybrid cross and genetic interactions)
segregation analysis of a dihybrid cross with a genetic interaction in A.thaliana
chi-square testing of experimental and theoretical segregation classes
genetic problems solving
3.Multiple alleles (self-incompatibility in plants, MHC system, blood types)
blood type and Rh factor determination by using commercial antiserums and interpretation of results
genetic problems solving
4.Genetic linkage (cis-trans configuration, gene mapping)
setting up fruit fly crosses (various mutants: autosomal, X-linked, homozygous lethal loci)
genetic problems solving
5.Sex-linked genes (sex determination, gynandromorphs, sex-linked traits, sex-dependent traits)
separating the parents from the F1 generation in the fruit fly crosses
genetic problems solving
6.Human karyotype and chromosomal aberrations (changes in structure and number, chromosomal syndromes)
analysis of the F1 generation of the fruit fly crosses and setting-up and F2 cross
Giemsa staining of human chromosomes and microscopy
karyogram construction starting from a human karyotype
genetic problems solving
7.Genetics of microorganisms (conjugation,transformation, prototrophs, auxotrophs)
separating the F1 fruit fly parents from the F2 generation
plating prototrophic or auxotrophic E.coli sensitive or resistant to antibiotics on selective media and the interpretation of results
genetic problems solving
8.Induction of gene expression (prokaryotes: Lac operon; eukaryotes: auxin-induced gene expression)
fruit fly F2 segregation analysis and chi-square testing of the experimental and theoretical ratios
transformation of a plasmid vector into chemically competent E.coli
performing alpha-complementation and blue-white selection plating of transformed E.coli on appropriate media and scoring of outcomes
expression of auxin-inducible transcriptional and translational markers in 3 lines of transgenic A. thaliana
genetic problems solving
9.Cytoplasmic inheritance
genetic problems solving
10.Population genetics
genetic problems solving
11.Kitchen isolation of genomic DNA
DNA isolation from fruit, vegetables and meat by using kitchen chemicals and utensils (understanding the basic principles of DNA isolation)
Staining of DNA with DNA stains
genetic problems solving
12.Isolation of genomic DNA from A.thaliana and a plasmid DNA from E.coli
DNA isolation by standard laboratory protocols
genetic problems solving
13.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), electrophoresis and plasmid restriction analysis
PCR-based transgene detection in transgenic A.thaliana
plasmid digestion with restriction endonucleases
agarose gel preparation, electrophoresis of isolated genomic and plasmid DNA, visualization on a transilluminator
genetic problems solving
SEMINAR
Students are offered scientific articles or are themselves proposing journal articles, book chapters or popular science articles related to any of the lecture topics. They are given the task to prepare a short PP presentation on the chosen topic and are expected to submit a written summary thereof.
Literature:
  1. LITERATURA
    L.H. Hartwell, L. Hood, M.L. Goldberg, A.E. Reynolds, L.M. Silver, R.C. Veres: Genetics; from genes to genomes McGraw Hill 2008.
    B. Lewin: Genes VIII. Oxford University Press 2004.
    R. H. Tamarin: Principles of Genetics. Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1999.
    Interna skripta za praktičnu nastavu: Praktikum iz genetike (Biološki odsjek, PMF)
    Mrežni udžbenik iz genetike: http://www.genetika.biol.pmf.unizg.hr/
    Znanstveni i znanstveno-popularni članci koji se odnose na gradivo genetike.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Cell Biology
4. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule: