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Immunology and Immunogenetics

Code: 83775
ECTS: 5.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić - Lectures
Lecturers: Dyana Odeh, mag. biol. exp. - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Students will be able to:
1. understand the immune processes in the organism, the formation and development of immune responses to specific antigens
2. understand the basic characteristics and mechanisms underlying the nonspecific and specific (humoral and cellular) immune responses,
3. understand the defense mechanisms of the body from infections, tumors, and mechanisms to preserve the antigenic and genetic homeostasis
4. Understand and be able to interpret scientific papers in biomedicine (human and veterinary medicine), and biology, and in some biotechnological sciences.
5. Students will be able to apply the methods in the study of immune responses in some immune diseases and assessing the effect of specific therapies in animal models and in in vitro studies
6. Students will be able to create a design of experiments for the assessment of immune reactivity
7. Analyze and identify the changes and the effects of immune modulation of immunoreactivity
8. critically examine the experiments testing the immunoreactivity bioethical aspects
9. to evaluate the role and importance of manipulating immune response in transplantation immunology, tumor immunology, immunology of microorganisms, pharmaceutical immunology.

1. Introduction to Immunology, Historical perspective, Phisiological role of immune responses, Nonspecific (Innate) Immunity, Specific (Acquired) Immunity,
2. Experimental systems, Cells and Organs of the Immune System, Hematopoiesis, Immune-System Cells (Lymphoid cells, Mononuclear Cells, Granulocytic Cells,Dendritic cells, Organs of the immune System (Primary Lymphoid Organs and Sekondary Lymphoid Organs,
3. Generation of B-cell and T-cell respones, Antigens, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Immunoglobulins: Structure and Function, Basic Sructure of Immunoglobulins, B-cell Receptor, Immunoglobuli Classes, Monoclonal Antibodies, Antigen-Antibody Interaction, Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin genes, B-cell Maturation, Activation and Differentiation,
4. Antigen Processing and Presentation, T-cell Receptor, T-cell Maturation, Activation and Differentiation, Immune Effector Mechanisms,
5. Cytokines and Chemokines,
6. The Complement System, Complement Components, Regulation of the Complement System, Biological Consequences of Complement Activation, Complement Deficiencies,
7. Leukocyte Migration and Inflammation,Lymphocyte Recirculation, Cell-Adhesion Molecules,
8. The Immflamatory Process, Mediators of Immflamation, Anti-Inflamatory Agents,
9. Regulation of the Immune Effector Response, Immunological Tolerance, Tolerance and response to self and non-self tissues, Factors that determine the Tolerance, Tolerance Mechanisms, Central thymic tolerance to self antigens, Peripheral or post-thymic tolerance to self antigens, Mother tolerance to fetus antigens,
10. Hypersensitive Reactions, IgE-mediated (Type I) Hypersensitivity, Antibody-Mediated Cytotoxic (Type II) Hypersensitivity, Immune Complex-Mediated (Type III) Hypersensitivity, TDTH - Mdiated (Type IV) Hypersensitivity,
11. The Immune System in Health and Disease, Vaccines, Active and Passive Immunization, Designing Vaccines for Active Immunization,
12. Immune Response to Infectious Diseases, Viral Infection, Bacteral Infection, Infection caused by Protozoa and Parasitic Worms,
13. Autoimmunity, Organ-Specific Autoimune Diseases, Systemic Autoimune Diseases, Proposed Mechanism for induction Autoimmnity, Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases, Immunodeficiency Diseases, AIDS,
14. Transplantation Immunology, Immunologic basis of Graft Rejection Clinical Manifestations of Graft Rejection,Tissue typing, Specific Immunosuppressive Therapy, Clinical Transplantation,
15. Cancer and Immune system, Malignant Transformation of Cells, Tumor Antigens, Immune Response to Tumors, Cancer Immunoteraphy, Immunological techniques.

1. Immune system organs and cells
- Introduction to peripheral and central lymphoid organs
- Lymphoid organs isolation
- Preparing cell suspension using thymus, spleen and lymph node
- Determination of cell count in lymphoid organs
- Percentage of viable cells in cell suspensions

2. Cytotoxicity test
- Introduction to complement system
- Effect of rat polyclonal anti-thymocyte serum on mice thymocytes
- Effect of various antiserum titers on cell viability

3. Plaque forming cells (PFC)
- Introduction to B lymphocytes
- Mice immunisation using sheep red blood cells
- Splenocyte isolation, gel suspension, sheep red blood cells suspension and complement system solution setup
- Estimation of plasma cells percentage in mice spleen

4. Radial immunodiffusion
- Preparing antigen solutions
- Gel solution containing antiserum setup
- Graphical determination of antigen concentration

5. ELISA - computer simulation
- Introduction to ELISA technique
- Analysing subjective and objective limitations of the test
  1. Andreis I, Batinić D, Čulo F, Grčević D, Marušić. M, Taradi M. 2010. Imunologija, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, sedmo izdanje
  2. Kuby J. 2007. Immunology. 6rd ed. WH. Freeman and company, New York
  3. Male D, Brustoff J, Roth DB, Roitt I. 2006. Immmunology. 7th ed. Mosby, Edinburgh, UKI
  4. Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M. 2003. Immunobiology, The Immune system in Health and Disease. 5th ed. Garland Publishing
  5. Abbas AK, Lichtman, Andrew H, Poper, Jordan S (2000) Cellular and molecular immunology. 4th ed. WB. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA
  6. Oršolić N (2009) Osnove imunosne reakcije, Interna skripta
5. semester
Izborni predmeti - Regular study - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule: