1. To recognize and to classify invertebrates in sea, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems.
2. To compare biodiversity of invertebrates among different ecosystems.
3. To manage the basic invertebrate classification with the discussion on phylogenetic relationships among groups and on hypotheses on Metazoa origin.
4. To analyse the basic morphological, anatomical, physiological and ethological adaptations in invertebrates on environmental conditions with the detection of their ecological position and significance in the ecosystem as a reflection of evolutionary changes.
5. To specify the basic phases in invertebrate life cycles and to interpret their adaptations to living conditions using dissection, observation, and perception skills.
6. To discuss the role of invertebrates as pathogens, but also in food and drug production, in the production of energy and raw materials, and in nature conservation. To specify species from the environment that humans use for food and healing, and those that they consider pests.
7. To dissect the role of certain invertebrates in food webs based on knowledge of their structural and functional organisation.
8. To study scientific literature and highlight the research questions, followed by planning, preparing, and conducting a simple investigation and a conclusion with answers to the research questions.
1. Abundance, distribution and diversity of invertebrates in biosphere, and their ecological position. Introduction to invertebrate zoology.
2. Unicellular organisation of protozoans. Structural specialisations for protozoan life functions.
3. Protozoa evolution and taxonomy. Protozoan taxa that are human pathogens.
4. The origin of the Metazoa and the key steps in the evolution of animals: the emergence of multicellularity, the biological and evolutionary implications of this development, explanations and hypotheses related to its occurrence.
5. Phylogenetic position of certain taxa and relationships among them, basic principles of their classification. Structural plan, functional organisation and mode of life of invertebrates: symmetry, body size, reproduction and embryonic development, body cavities. Structural and functional characteristics and diversity of certain groups. Distribution and ethology, adaptations to environmental conditions. Characteristic species in the Croatian fauna. Ecological significance and importance for humans.
6. Porifera, Mesozoa
7. Cnidaria, Ctenophora
9. Nemertea, Aschelminthes
11. Annelida, Echiura, Sipuncula
12. Arthropoda (Trilobitomorpha and Cheliceriformes)
13. Arthropoda (Crustacea)
14. Arthropoda (Myriapoda i Hexapoda)
15. Lophophorata, Echinodermata and Hemichordata.
Practical work with permanent and temporary microscopic and macroscopic preparations and living material. Microscopic structure of protozoa, sections of invertebrates, morphological and anatomical features. Independent observation and inference of functional organisation of representative taxa is encouraged.
1. Protozoa (flagellated protozoa, amoeboid protozoa and ciliates)
2. Protozoa (Sporozoa), Spongia
3. Cnidaria (Anthozoa and Scyphozoa)
4. Cnidaria (Hydrozoa) and Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria)
5. Platyhelminthes (Trematoda and Cestoda)
6. Aschelminthes (Nematoda and Rotifera)
7. Mollusca (Gastropoda)
8. Mollusca (Bivalvia and Cephalopoda)
9. Annelida (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta)
10. Arthropoda (Chelicerata and Crustacea)
11. Arthropoda (Crustacea)
12. Arthropoda (Hexapoda)
13. Arthropoda (Hexapoda)
14. Lophophorata and Echinodermata
15. Overview of the preserved material, introduction and the use of the identification literature.