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Applied Limnology

Code: 74439
ECTS: 2.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Maria Špoljar - Lectures
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


In agreement with the students enrolled in the course, the lecturer will provide as many teaching elements in English as possible, or in both English and Croatian for mixed groups (i.e., bilingual teaching materials and bilingual exams). Level 2 also includes additional individual consultations with foreign students (as in Level 1) for the teaching elements which will be held in Croatian.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)

1. Explain the impact of anthropogenic activities on the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors in the inland waters.
2. To analyze the diversity of biocenosis in water ecosystems of different trophyc/saprobiclevel with regard to the origin and degree of the anthropogenic impact.
3. Suggest biomanipulation methods and restoration of freshwater ecosystems with an explanation of selection.
4. Analyze the effectiveness of the waste water treatment plant with a proposal for disposal measures of waste water.
5. Develop measures to mitigate anthropogenic impact and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in protected and unprotected areas.


1. LECTURE Lakes and running waters (origin, basis characteristics).
2-3. LECTURE The interaction of abiotic and biotic factors in inland waters.
4. LECTURE Circulation of nutrients in aquatic systems of varying trophy degrees.
5-6. LECTURE Functional organization of aquatic communities and biotic interactions in running waters, shallow and deep lakes.
7. LECTURE Anthropogenic impacts (eutrophication, engineering measures, invasive species, aquaculture, inland water transport).
8-9. LECTURE Restoration of eutrophic lakes and streams (the purpose and goals, alternative stable states).
10-13. LECTURE Steps in restoration: control of nutrients, aquatic macrophytes, biomanipulation, hydro-technical measures.
14-15. LECTURE Methods of wastewater treatment.


1-2. Field work: measurement of basic limnological parameters and morphometric characteristics of the water body. Assessment of anthropogenic impact. Sampling methods and collection of plankton, periphyton and benthos samples.
3-5. Chemical analysis of water and food resources in water samples of different trophy degrees.
6-10. Analysis of the structure and functioning of different trophic groups in aquatic biocenosis and their indicator values.
11-12. Final work: Antropogenic impact assessment according to environmental conditions and aquatic biocoenoses based on computer analysis of collected data.
13. Field work: Understanding the functioning of waste water treatment and collecting samples of activated sludge for analysis.
14-15. Assessment quality of activated sludge according to analyses of abiotic and biotic (bacteria, microfauna) factors.
  1. Kalff, J. (2002): Limnology. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  2. Moss,B., Madgwick, J. & Philips, G (1997): A guide to the restoration of nutrient-enriched shallow lakes. W. W. Hawes, UK
  3. Tedeschi, S. (1997): Zaštita voda. Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Zagreb
  4. Špoljar, M (2014/15). Primijenjena limnologija, PMF. Prezentacije predavanja i praktikuma na internetskim stranicama Biološkog odsjeka
  5. Wetzel, R. G., Likens, G. E. (2000): Limnological Analyses. Springer, New York.
  6. Brönmark,C. & Hansson, L-A. (1998): The Biology of Lake and Pods. Oxford University Press,Oxford,New York.Limnological Analyses. Springer, New York.
  7. Izbor iz limnolokih časopisa i internetskih stranica
3. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Environmental Sciences
Consultations schedule:
  • prof. dr. sc. Maria Špoljar :

    During working time and by e-mail.