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Fundamentals of Animal Physiology

Code: 60267
ECTS: 6.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Dubravka Hranilović - Lectures
izv. prof. dr. sc. Ana Galov - Lectures
doc. dr. sc. Duje Lisičić - Lectures
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 45
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. To explain basic processes occurring at the cellular level (cellular metabolism, cell to cell signaling, detection of environmental stimuli), common to all animals
2. To explain the function of organ systems in the body
3. To integrate functions of various organ systems in the maintenance of homeostasis of the vertebrate organism
4. To analyze a physiological function from cellular to systemic level
5. To operate with basic skills of laboratory animal handling
6. To apply basic experimental methods in the field of physiology
7. To interpret experimental results

The course introduces basics of animal physiology on both, cellular and systemic levels

1. Introduction to physiology (history, subdisciplines, levels and methods)
2. Physiology of the cell (biomacromolecules, metabolism)
3. Physiology of membranes (structure, transport, electrical properties)
4. Communication among cells and tissues (neurotransmitters and hormones as signal molecules in preservation of homeostasis)
5. Nervous system (evolution, structural and functional organization)
6. Endocrine system (hypothalamus-pituitary axis; hormones that regulate growth and metabolism; hormones that regulate glucose metabolism; hormones that regulate water and ionic balance; reproductive hormones)
7. Muscles (structure, contraction mechanisms)
8. Blood (composition and function of blood, hemostasis)
9. The immune system
10. Heart (structure, electrical activity, mechanics, control)
11. Circulation (blood vessels, blood preassure)
12. Respiration (structure of respirator system, mechanics of respiration, gass exchange and transport; conrol )
13. Digestion (structure and function of digestive system)
14. Kidney (structure, function, processes)

1. Laboratory animals (mice, rats, frogs). Animal handling Animal maintenance. Inbred strains. Substance application, anesthesia, analgesia. Animal welfare law
2. Membrane transport (simulation). Diffusion in agar. Red blood cell in solutions of various tonicity.
3. Blood cell counting. Preparation of leukocyte differential.
4. Analysis of leukocyte differential. Types of blood cells in vertebrates and avertebrates.
5. Hematocrit. Sedimentation. Serum and plasma. Demonstration of fibrinogene according to Howe. Bleeding time and aggregation time.
6. Breeding (simulation). Donders lung model. Qualitative demonstration of CO2 in expirational and inspirational air. Lung volume and capacity, static spirometry (Biopac)
7. Kidneys (simulation). Buffer characteristics of serum and plasma. Acid-base equilibrium (simulation)
8. Nerve impulse (simulation). Neuromuscular synapse. Application of a narcotic substance prevents the conduction of a nerve impulse. Muscles (simulation)
9. Miographic curve. Contractions of cooled and warmed muscle. Correlation between the extent of muscular contraction and intensity of stimulus. Impulse summation.
10. Heart (simulation). Contractions of an isolated heart. Demonstration of All-or-nothing law on a frog heart. The effects of temperature changes on a heartbeat. The effect of potassium and calcium ions on a hearbeat. The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves on a heartbeat. Stannius's ligatures. Early systole.
11. EKG (Biopac)
12. Digestion (simulation); Insulin and diabetes (simulation)
  1. Randall D, Burggren W, French K (2002) Eckert Animal Physiology 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
  2. Rhoades R, Pflanzer R (2003) Human Physiology, 4th edition. Thomson Learning, Inc. Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, USA
  3. Moyes CD, Schulte PM (2014) Principles of Animal Physiology, 2nd edition. Pearson Education, Harlow, England
2. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Environmental Sciences
Consultations schedule: