Gene expression: structure of chromosomes, genome organization, control of gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. Cell membrane: transport of substances through membrane, cell signaling; Synthesis and sorting of membrane lipids, sorting of proteins. Organelle biogenesis: - mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, nuclei. Cell ? cell signaling: hormones and their receptors, growth factors. Nerve cells: signal transduction (action potential), neurotransmitters and receptors. Regulation of cell metabolism; Cell mobility and shape: actin, myosin, muscles, actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. Microtubules (kinesin, dynein and intracellular transport, dynamics of microtubules and motor proteins). Multicellularity: cell-cell interactions, interactions of cells with cell matrix, embryogenesis, formation of organs and tissue organization. Regulation of the cell cycle: mitosis, meiosis. Cell death and stem cells: apoptosis, necrosis, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow stem cells. Cancer: oncogens, DNA viruses, oncorna viruses, chemical and radiation carcinogenesis, DNA repair. Immunity. Biochemistry of inflammation.
1. To explain and differentiate various posttranslational modifications of proteins.
2. To list and explain locations and processes involved in posttranslational modifications of proteins.
3. To define biogenesis of lipids and asymmetry of lipids in membrane leaflets.
4. To explain and to differentiate processes of protein incorporation into various cellular compartments.
5. To describe involved molecules and the nature of different cellular signaling processes.
6. To explain signals which activate cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolic processes.
7. To define how signals are transmitted into the nucleus and how gene transcription is activated.
8. To explain and to describe molecules involved in cytoskeleton organization.
9. To describe molecules and processes involved in the movement and orientation of the cells.
10. To differentiate phases of the cell cycle and to explain how cell cycle is controlled.
11. To list molecules involved in communication and adhesion of metazoan,s cells.
12. To explain the nature of stem cells.
13. To describe and understand how differentiated cells could be induced to form pluripotent stem cells.
14. To describe mayor signs of controlled cell death (apoptosis).
15. To describe and to explain molecules and processes involved in different modes of apoptosis.
16. To explain molecular mechanisms involved in signal transduction in nerve cells.
17.To describe molecular organization of nerve synapse and to explain chemical signal transduction within the synapses.
18.To describe and to differentiate processes involved in innate and adaptive immunity.
19. To explain processes involved in the biosynthesis of immunoglobulins.
20. To explain hallmarks of cancer cells- to describe mayor steps in metastasis.
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D. L. Nelson, M. M. Cox: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Macmillan and W. H. Freeman, New York, 6th edition, 2013.