The main objective of the course is to familiarize students with the basic chemical principles. For this purpose, within the required courses:
-Define pure substances and mixtures and to compare their properties;
-Define and compare the physical and chemical changes;
-Describe the structure of atoms;
-Compare and analyze the reactivity of different elements;
-Describe and analyze the nature of chemical bonding and molecular structure of the substance;
-Describe the characteristics of a particular aggregation states and to describe and analyze the changes that occur in phase transitions;
-Describe the types of crystalline solids and compare their properties;
-Define and compare the types of intermolecular interactions;
-Define the composition of pure substances and mixtures;
-Classify chemical reactions and analyze the changes that occur during them.
Substances -mixtures (homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures), pure substances (natural substances, compounds). Physical changes, separation of a mixture of ingredients. Chemical changes. The knowledge of the atomic structure of matter (Law of conservation of mass, law of constant weight ratio, Law multiple weight ratio, Dalton's atomistic theory). The discovery of the electron, the discovery of the atomic nucleus. The atomic theory today -an introduction to the structure of the atom. Symbols atoms, atomic number, mass number (nuclides, a chemical element, isotopes, isobars). Expression of the mass of atoms (relative atomic mass, relative atomic mass of the element). Plural, abundance. Periodic Table of Elements -historical overview. Build the periodic table -periods, groups (metals, semimetals, nonmetals).Electronic configuration -Bohr model of the atom, quantum mechanical model of the atom. Energy states of atoms and atomic orbitals (quantum numbers and their relationship with the periodic table). The principle of construction of electron cloud.
Atom radius, ionization energy, electron affinity.
Chemical bond -ionic bond (Hess's law, the enthalpy of the crystal lattice), covalent bond (the term electronegativity), the properties of ionic and covalent compounds. Lewis structural formula (oxidation number, formal charge), molecular shape (VSEPR theory).
Formulas and nomenclature of covalent and ionic compounds, polyatomic ions. Molar quantities (molar mass, relative molecular mass, molar volume). The composition of the substance (ratios, shares). Determining the formula of unknown compound. Aggregation state (solid, liquid, gas) and phase changes. Changes at phase transitions (enthalpy of phase transitions), the balance at the phase transition. The phase diagram (pressure and temperature influence on the aggregation state).
Intermolecular interactions (ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, and polarizability term induced dipole, dispersion forces). The properties of the liquid phase (surface tension, viscosity, capillarity).
Solid - amorphous and crystalline solid. Types and properties of crystalline solids (atomic, molecular, ionic, metallic, covalent solids). Crystal Systems. Cubic structures, hexagonal structure, the structure of the diamond. The structure of selected ionic solid (NaCl, CsCl).
Solutions - kind of solution. Liquid solutions -processes which take place in the melting solid into the liquid (dissolution enthalpy, melting as equilibrium process), the effect of temperature on the solubility of a solid in water. Dissolution of gases in water (influence of temperature and pressure). The composition of solutions (concentration molality).
Colligative properties of solutions (solvent vapor pressure, boiling point, melting point and osmotic pressure of the solution).
Types of chemical reactions. Reversible reactions. The stoichiometry of chemical reactions, the notion of excess and limiting reagenses.
Acids and bases. Neutralization reaction.
Oxidation and reduction reactions. Equating the redox reaction (ion-electron method, oxidation number). Electrochemical reactions (standard electrode potential). Galvanic cell, electrolytic cell (Faraday's laws of electrolysis).
After this course the student is expected to be able to:
1. Distinguish pure substances or mixtures of substances and their properties;
2. Distinguish the physical change of the chemical changes;
3. Compare the properties and reactivity of individual elements and connect them to their position in the periodic table;
4. Clarify the concept of ionic, covalent and metallic bonds;
5. Compare the properties of gaseous, liquid and solid phase and qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the changes that are happening at the phase transition;
6. Distinguish between types of intermolecular interactions and connect their influence with the aggregation state in which a substance exists (at given conditions) and the solubility of certain substances in a given solvent;
7. Distinguish between types of crystalline solids and connect the inner structure of matter with its properties;
8. Calculate the composition of pure substances and mixtures of substances;
9. Distinguish between types of chemical reactions and qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the processes that occur during them.
Attending lectures, study literature, preparation and discussion of seminars.
Lectures, seminars, independent assignments.
METHODS OF MONITORING AND VERIFICATION:
Attending of lectures, colloquiums and homework.
TERMS FOR RECEIVING THE SIGNATURE:
Homework, colloquiums, seminars.
Two colloquiums -at each colloquium student must achieve a threshold of at least 50% in order to be released from written exam.
Seminar that student must submit before the oral exam. The success of the written and oral examination.
- COMPULSORY LITERATURE:
S. Silberberg, Chemistry, 2. ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 2000.
M. Sikirica, Stehiometrija, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1987.
P. W. Atkins and M. J. Clugston, Načela fizikalne kemije, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1989.
T. Cvitaš, I. Planinić and N. Kallay, Rješavanje računskih zadataka u kemiji, I.dio, HKD, Zagreb, 2008.
T. Cvitaš, I. Planinić and N. Kallay, Rješavanje računskih zadataka u kemiji, II.dio, HKD, Zagreb, 2008.
- M. Sikirica, Stehiometrija, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1987.
- P. W. Atkins i M. J. Clugston, Načela fizikalne kemije, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 1989.
- T. Cvitaš, I. Planinić i N. Kallay, Rješavanje računskih zadataka u kemiji, I.dio, HKD, Zagreb, 2008.
- T. Cvitaš, I. Planinić i N. Kallay, Rješavanje računskih zadataka u kemiji, II.dio, HKD, Zagreb, 2008.