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Immunology of Tumours and Metastasis
Code: 45058
ECTS: 6.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić - Lectures
Lecturers: Nada Oršolić - Seminar
Take exam: Studomat
English level:

1,0,0

All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.
Load:

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Seminar 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Description:
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Students will be able to
1. to explain the origin and development of tumors
2. to evaluate the harmful effects of carcinogens, discover where they are and how to avoid or reduce the risk of their actions
3. explain the underlying mechanisms of action of carcinogens in the process of tumor genesis
4. explain the process of metastasis, the relationship of the tumor and host during the metastatic cascade
5. find out what factors facilitate and which hinder the process of metastasis formation
6. explain the basic principles of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, hyperthermia, phototherapy, immunotherapy, biotherapy...
7. explain new approaches in the treatment of tumors and metastases, such as gene therapy, nanoparticles, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition telomerazne activities ...
8. clarify the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to chemotherapy and the abolition of the resistance mechanisms
9. students will apply some important methods for evaluating the effectiveness of therapy on tumor growth and metastasis
10. will create a design of experiments to evaluate host immune reactivity to the tumor and the possibility to enhance the host immune response
11. Students will to identify and analyze the positive and negative effects of therapy and how to minimize the adverse effects of therapy
12. critically examine and evaluate the importance of experiments, animal models in assessing the effectiveness of specific therapies

COURSE CONTENT:

1. What is the tumor? The hallmark of tumor cells
2. Molecular biology of carcinogenesis and tumor development. Chemical, physical and biological carcinogenesis.
3. Carcinogens, Metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, Interaction of chemical carcinogens with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, Experimental models for the study of carcinogenesis, Irradiation carcinogenesis, Oxigen free radicals, Aging and cancer, Viral carcinogenesis
4. Genetic alterations in cancer cells, Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, Genetic and epigenetic factors, DNA methylation, Histon modification, miRNA
5. Molecular pathophysiology of tumor cells transformation, Genetic, metabolic and immunological barriers,
6. Growth factors and signal transduction mechanisms, Cell-cycle regulation and apopptosis, Mechanisms of apoptosis, Resistance to Apoptosis in Cancer and Potential Targets for Therapy
7. Replicative senescence and its disturbances in human cancers, Pathways to Senescence, Telomerase, Regulation of Telomerase Activity. Signalling pathways that regulate autophagy, Autophagy and Apoptosis, Autophagy and senescence, Autophagy and Cancer, Autophagy and immunity, mitotic catastophe
8. Biology of tumor metastasis, Invasion and metastasis: the hallmarks of malignant neoplasia, Metastatic tumor cells and the extracellular matrix, Factors mobility of tumor cells and metastasis,
9. Angiogenesis, Role of metalloproteinases in tumor progression, Molecular genetics and regulation of tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis, Interactions of invasive tumors with the immune system
10. Host-tumor interactions: Tumor effects on the host, Tumor immunology: Immunological approaches to the diagnosis and treatmentof cancer, Mechanism of immune response to cancer,
11. Immune surveillance, Tumor-Induced Immune Deviation, Cancer Predisposition Through Chronic Inflammation, Tumor Progression Through the Recruitment of Immune System Cells,Ways tumors avoid the host's immune response,
12. Immunotherapy, Adoptive immunotherapy, Tumor vakcines
13. Gene-target therapy for cancer, Cancer prevention
14. Principles of tumor therapy, Mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy, Approaches to Overcoming Drug Resistance,
15. New approaches to diagnosis and treatment of metastases

EXERCISES:
1.Introduction to working with tumors - on the in vivo tumor models;
Work on cells in vivo:
a. Ehrlich ascites tumor
b. Mammary gland carcinoma (MCA)
2. Determination of the number of metastases in the lung in a CBA strain mouse
3. Monitoring growth of EAT tumors in Swiss albino mice and monitoring the survival of animals.
4. Determining the functional ability of macrophages from the abdominal cavity
5. Differential cell analysis of the abdominal cavity
6. Determination of cell viability in culture using the in vitro cytotoxicity test - MTS
7. Testing cytotoxic effects of different compounds on the culture of adherent cells using clonal cell growth method

SEMINARS:
Part of teaching-related seminars based on broad awareness of educational content, discussion of topics, clarifying and linking of data items, the recommendation of route of administration and reaching conclusions. The seminars were based on the following:
topics:
New approaches in the treatment of cancer
Chronic inflammation and cancer development
Genetic instability and cancer
Basic signaling pathways and cancer
telomeric length, telomeric proteins and genomic instability in carcinogenesis
DNA repair and survival of tumor cells
Tumor stem cells
UV radiation, inflammation and oxidative stress
Hormones and tumor
Natural carcinogens in food
Flavonoids and their anti-tumor effect
Oncolytic viruses and tumors
Epigenetic changes and tumor
Literature:
  1. Knowles M, Selby P. Introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of cancer, Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, 2010
  2. Georg F. Weber, Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Hardcover, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2007
  3. Wolfgang Arthur Schulz, Molecular Biology of Human Cancers, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005
  4. Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik M. 2003. Immunobiology, The Immune system in Health and Disease. 5th ed. Garland Publishing
2. semester
Izborni predmeti - Mandatory modul - Physiology and Immunobiology
Consultations schedule: