COURSE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The understanding of scientific concepts regarding learning, memorizing, forgetting and qualification for the use of these concepts in the development of certain elements of the curriculum system; in the establishment of cognitive, psychomotor skills and affective (educational) goals, in the development of the programme, in teaching, in the evaluation of students' achievements and the external evaluation of education.
COURSE DESCRIPTION AND SYLLABUS:
Learning and the fundamental educational concepts: organized learning(education) and experiential learning. Learning with a purpose and clear intention unlike learning without a purpose. The proper exchange of accepting and processing the content of learning. Learning by doing, with personal experience (Kolb's model).
Education as organized cognitive learning of knowledge and motor skills; education as organized affective learning of values, attitudes and habits. Verbal and evolution learning and combined. How the individual fits into society.
Learning and remembering in the system of processing information. Accepting- processing- use of the content of learning through the model of remembering: sensory-memory, short- term memory, long- term memory.
Forgetting. Along with the older theories, the emphasis is on the theory of "the wrong key" (the availability and the accessibility of the content of memorizing).
Learning theories. From the association theory, through the confirmation theory to the cognitive theory which explains the ways of processing the learning content and their placement in long-term memorizing.
Operationally determined forms of learning. According to the realization there is simple learning (conditioned and mechanical), complex ( instrumental and learning by insight), combined (psychomotor learning, social learning and the learning of complex verbal topics).
Learning by conditioning. The form of learning without purpose in which a link is established that did not previously exist.
Learning by imitating. One way of learning according to the model. It is found in practical and social learning as well.
Cognitive learning or learning by insight. Insight as the reorganization of perception ( possible aha-experience), a new insight(notion). Very resistant to forgetting.
Learning of learning: metacognition, learning skills, cognitive styles.Metamemory as an aspect of metacognition with emphasis on the knowing the individually most suitable learning strategies, and knowing well the already existing "knowledge bases" in one's memory. Cognitive styles (e.g. visual-auditive and others) as the basis for the individualization of learning and teaching.
Combining forms of learning in teaching. According to teaching goals ( informative and formative ) forms are chosen, with more or less of the independance in the student's work ( presentation, problem solving, research projects, etc.).
Individual differences regarding abilities and teaching. There are a lot individual differences, especially in primary (obligatory) school ( where there are children with slight mental retardation to geniuses together in the same class). Teachers try to individualize the teaching as much as possible taking into consideration the differences in abilities, interests , cognitive styles, etc.
Age differences in the subjective factors of learning (the particularities of adult learning and teaching). In adulthood, in comparison to youth, the abilities to learn lessen, but by no means entirely. Adults need more time to learn ( the importance of motivation and mental co-ordination).
Psychometric basis in measuring of knowledge and other outcomes of education. The advantages and disadvantages of the usual oral and written exam and its combination with objective procedures. Validity, objectivity and reliability. Normative tests, criteria tests. Work samples. The external efficiency of teaching/learning process.
The psychological basis of the curriculum theory: the taxonomy of the learning goals, the development of the programme, learning and teaching, evaluation. Along with the basic determinations (what and how) , adjusting to modern notions and insights, clear ways of achieving the goals and establishment of facts.