This course will introduce students with basics of experimental work in the field of nuclear physics and will help them relate the theoretical knowledge (e.g. the theory of radioactive decays and interaction of radiation with matter) with the experiment. The combination of theoretical and practical approach will give students a deeper and more complete understanding of the underlying physics. During this course the students are trained to use the basic particle detections systems such as gaseous detectors, semiconductor detectors and scintillation detectors. They will also get introduced to modern data analysis software and they will learn how to use data-bases and expert literature. The results of the assignments need to be presented in reports having the form of scientific publication, so the students will get experience in presenting and critically assessing the obtained results.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
1 KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
1.1 Describe the state of the art in - at least- one of the presently active physics specialties
2 APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1 Identify the essentials of a process/situation and set up a working model of the same or recognize and use the existing models;
2.2 Evaluate clearly the orders of magnitude in situations which are physically different, but show analogies, thus allowing the use of known solutions in new problems;
2.3 Adapt available models to new experimental data;
2.4 Perform experiments independently using standard techniques, as well as to describe, analyze and critically evaluate experimental data;
3 MAKING JUDGEMENTS
3.1 Work with a high degree of autonomy, even accepting responsibilities in project planning and in the managing of structures;
3.2 Develop a personal sense of responsibility, given the free choice of elective/optional courses;
4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS
4.1 Present one's own research or literature search results to professional as well as to lay audiences
5 LEARNING SKILLS
5.1 Search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required)
5.2 Carry out research by undertaking a PhD
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
By completing the course Nuclear physics laboratory, students will be able to:
- Qualitatively describe principles of operation of basic nuclear physics instrumentation, including gaseous detectors, semiconductor detectors and scintillation detectors
- Relate the theoretical knowledge with the practical measurements and their results
- Autonomously use the basic nuclear physics instrumentation for carrying out experiments
- Autonomously analyse the measured data, using modern analysis software
- Autonomously search data-bases and study expert literature
- Present the results in the form of scientific publications
- Critically assess the results and compare them with the expectations from theory
During one semester, students will perform 6 out of 8 of the following laboratory exercises:
1. Geiger-Muller counter
2. Statistics of nuclear decays
3. Measurement of the natural radioactivity
4. Absorption of radiation in matter
5. Compton scattering
6. Gamma ray spectroscopy using Germanium detector
7. Gamma ray spectroscopy using scintillation detector
8. Coincidence measurements
Each exercise is performed during 10 hours, where the first five are dedicated to carrying out the measurement and the other five hours are for data analysis. This assumes that students come prepared for each exercise.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Students should prepare before conducting the exercises in order to understand the physical background of the studied phenomena and principle of operation of the experimental set-up. After completing the measurements, the students should write a report containing the results in a form of a scientific publication. The report has to be submitted in due time, as given by the instructor.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
Students are graded for each exercise in the following manner:
- Before carrying out the exercise, they have to demonstrate the understanding of the physical background of the studied phenomena and principle of operation of the experimental set-up (30% of the grade).
- During the exercise the instructor monitors students' practical performance and working autonomy (20% of the grade).
- The quality of the assignment reports, which must be in a form of a scientific publication, containing a short theoretical introduction, description of the experimental set-up and methods, results, a conclusion and bibliography. The results must be prepared in form of graphs and tables using the necessary statistical analysis. The conclusion must be based on the measured data and the arguments brought up in the report. (50% of the grade).
The final grade will be based on the average grade of all exercises.
- 1) Upute za rad u Nuklearnom praktikumu.
2) I. Supek: Teorijska fizika i struktura materije
- Izvorni radovi koji su bili prekretnice u razvoju nuklearne fizike (Rutherford, Geiger i Marsden, Compton, Cockcroft i Walton, Chadwick, Anderson, Lawrence, Curie i Joliot, Fermi, Yukawa, Hahn i Strassmann