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Animal Physiology

Code: 40882
ECTS: 8.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Vesna Benković - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Domagoj Đikić - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić - Lectures
Lecturers: v. pred. dr. sc. Julija Erhardt - Practicum
Marko Glogoški, mag. oecol. et prot. nat. - Practicum
Tomislav Gojak, mag. biol. exp. - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 45
Practicum 60
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)

1. Define and describe the basic concepts of general physiology (homeostasis, negative and positive feedback, diffusion, osmosis, isoosmotic and isotonic Na/K pump, buffers and acid-base balance, etc.).
2. Become familiar with laboratory animals and learn the principles of proper handling of animals, apply the principle of RRR.
3. Analyze the function of the control system. Explain the principles of autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and neuroendocrine stimulation.
4. Calculate and quantitatively determine the number of certain blood cells in the blood and hematological indices.
5. Elucidate different types of muscle actin role, myosin and troponin in skeletal muscle contraction. Conclude the similarities and differences in the function of different types of muscle. Explain the function of ligatures of Stannius.
6. Define and link function of the respiratory and renal systems. Explain how the kidney and breathing mechanism to regulate the pH of the blood plasma. Distinguish between metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
7. Target blood pressure and analyze the ECG.
8. Analyze the functions of the digestive system and linked to basic eating disorders predict the consequences of the impaired biometric parameters and metabolic rate


1. Definition and brief historical development of physiology. Homeostasis. Based control and feedback mechanisms. The fundamental physical and chemical processes in cells and tissues. Metabolism in cells and tissues.
2. Transportation mechanisms in cells and tissues. Physiology of membrane structure. The formation and significance of the electrical gradient, bioelectricity and membrane potential.
3. Generation of action potentials and signals on membrane structures. Physiology of animal organ systems and integrative physiology.
4. Communication within and between neurons. Signal transmission. General physiological properties of the senses. The chemical senses. Mechanical senses. Temperature sensor. Vision.
5. The flow of information through the nervous system. The organization of the nervous system. The autonomic nervous system; Central integrative systems
6. Cell secretion. Secretory mechanisms. Glands with external and internal secretion.
7. Hypothalamic control. Neurohormones. Cellular mechanisms of action of hormones. Physiological effects of hormones. Hormones invertebrates. Glands with external secretion.
8. Basics of muscle contraction. Mechanics and regulation of muscle contraction. Energy muscle contraction. Adaptations muscle. Nerve control of muscle contraction.
9. Physiology smooth, striated and cardiac muscle.
10. Hematology. The mechanisms of blood coagulation. Regulation of tissue oxygenation.
11. Defense of the organism and the immune response
12. General circulation system. Physiology of the heart. Hemodynamics. Peripheral circulation. Regulation of circulation. Oxygen and carbon dioxide in the animal organ systems. Regulation of pH. The lungs and gills. Regulation of gas exchange.
13. Physiology of vertebrates kidney. Nonrenal osmoregulatory mechanisms in vertebrates. Osmoregulatory mechanisms invertebrates.
14. Physiology of digestion. Basal and with standard metabolic rate. The ratio of biometric parameters and metabolic rate.
15. Reproductive physiology, Pregnancy, fetal development and lactation

1. Nervous impulse. Neuromuscular transmission. Termination of the impulse conduction through the nerve anaesthetized. Du Bois - Raymond's rule.
2. Muscles. Isotonic and isometric contractions. Myographic curve. Contraction of chilled and heated muscles. Isotonic and isometric contraction contractions.
3. Impact loads on the muscle strength of contraction. Summation of impulses. Dependence of muscle contraction on the strength of the stimulus.
4. Heart. The law "all or nothing" on the frog heart. Premature systole. Centers Automation heart - Stannius ligatures. The contraction of isolated heart. The influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the heart. Effect of calcium and potassium ions on the heart. The effect of reduced temperature on the heart.
5. Laboratory animals (mice, rats, frogs). Handling animals. Maintenance of the animals. Animal strains.
6. Techniques giving substances, anesthesia and analgesia animals. The Animal Welfare Act.
7. Transfer of substances through the cell membrane. Behavior of erythrocytes in solutions with different osmotic pressure. Osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. Diffusion of color in the agar.
8. Counting blood cells. Preparation differential cell count (DCC). Paint DCC's.
9. Types of blood cells - vertebrates and invertebrates comparison.
10. Overview DCC. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Hematocrit. Determination of hemoglobin per Sahly. Teichman's crystals.
11. Preparation of serum and plasma. Detection of fibrinogen by Howe. Detection of proteins in serum. Bleeding time. Clotting time. Calculating haematological indices
12. Breathing. Pneumogram. Intrapleural pressure. Donders lung model.
13. Static and dynamic spirometry.
14. Kidneys. Acid-base balance. Buffering properties of serum and plasma.
15. Blood pressure. ECG.
  1. D. Randall, W. Burggren, K. French: "Eckert Animal Physiology - Mechanisms and Adaptations", 5th ed., W. H. Freeman and Co., 2002 (http://www.whfreeman.com/animalphys5/)
  2. A.C. Guyton. Fiziologija čovjeka i mehanizmi bolesti 5 izdanje, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb, 1994.
  3. C. D. Moyes, P. D. Schulte: ?Principles of Animal Physiology?, Benjamin Cummings, 2006 (http://www.aw-bc.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0805353518,00.html)
    L. Sherwood, H. Klandorf, P. Yancey: ?Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms?, Thomson-Brooks/Cole, 2005
    (http://www.brookscole.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=0534554040&discipline_ number=22)
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Attended : Biochemistry 1

Examination :
Passed : Biochemistry 1
5. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule: