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Developmental Biology
Code: 40883
ECTS: 7.0
Lecturers in charge: doc. dr. sc. Romana Gračan - Lectures
izv. prof. dr. sc. Dunja Leljak-Levanić - Lectures
Lecturers: Romana Gračan - Seminar
Dunja Leljak-Levanić - Seminar

Ana Dobrović - Practicum
Romana Gračan - Practicum
Mateja Jagić - Practicum
Andreja Škiljaica - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:

0,0,0

The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.
Load:

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 45
Practicum 30
Seminar 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Description:
EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. to define basic processes and mechanisms in development of man, animals and plants
2. to recognize microscopic structure of developmental stages on plant, insect, amphibian, bird and mammal examples
3. to describe how the genes are activated and control the development (Hox and MADS genes examples)
4. to compare how animal and plant tissues are formed through embryonic cells interactions and induction
5. to describe how plant organs are initiated post embryonically
6. to use acquired knowledge in preparing autonomously seminar of selected theme

COURSE CONTENT

LECTURES
1. Historical roots of developmental biology (classical and modern approach); the role of genes in development and the signals that control expression of those genes. Animal and plant model systems.
2. The functional structure of animal gonads; the development of primordial germ cells and gonads.
3. Chromosomal and environmental sex determination.
4. Gametogenesis: Oogenesis. Cytoplasmic determinants, yolk proteins formation, vitellogenesis, oocyte maturation, egg envelopes. Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Hormonal regulation of gametogenesis in vertebrates.
5. Fertilization: the mechanisms of fertilization in different species, the contribution of the ovum and spermatozoon.
6. Cleavage: the patterns of cleavage, the amount of yolk affects cleavage; blastulas of various animals. Extraembryonic membranes (reptiles, birds and mammals).
7. Gastrulation: forming of ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, archenteron and coelom (the differences between the protostomes and deuterostomes). Gastrulation of sea urchins, fruit fly, frog, chicken and mouse.
8. Early development of man. The role of placenta. Origin of twins.
9. Morphogenesis and cell differentiation during development: neurulation, organogenesis. Cell to cell interactions and induction. Epithelial mesenchyme interactions. Paracrine factors.
10. The genetic core of development (dorsal ventral and anterior posterior axis formation, segmentation in insects, homeotic genes).
11. Plant cell: cell growth and development; establishment of polarity and differentiation; plant life cycle.
12. Embryogenesis: from the egg cell and zygote to embryo.
13. Shoot growth and development: genetic regulation of shoot meristem activity; development of axillary shoot.
14. Root growth and development: root meristem activity; development of axillary root.
15. Flowering: external control of flowering; the role of photoperiodism and temperature; ABC model; gametophyte development.
16. Dormancy and aging: mechanisms and functions of dormancy; programmed cell death, plant death.

LABORATORY EXERCISES
1. Functional structure of ovaries and testes, epidydimis; spermatogenesis and oogenesis (mammals).
2. Reproductive systems and reproductive strategies of animals: comparison between gastropods (ovotestes), crustaceans, fish and reptiles.
3. Female reproductive tract: structure of oviduct and uterus (mammals).
4. Fertilisation, blastocyst development (echinoderms, amphibians, birds, mammals).
5. Implantation and differentiation of extraembryonic tissues (mammals).
6. Gastrulation (echinoderms, amphibians, birds, mammals).
7. Structure of placenta; types of placenta (mammals).
8. Neurulation and mesoderm segmentation (birds, mammals).
9. Beginning of organogenesis: comparative representation of kidney development (mammals).
10. Flowering, pollen development and embryo sac development; isolation of gametophytes; recognition of developmental stage after propidium jodide staining; pollen germination in vitro.
11. Isolation and comparison of zygotic and somatic embryo developmental stages.
12. Isolation and microscopic analysis of shoot apical meristem.
13. Root apical meristem and radial root pattering; analysis of different PIN::GFP mutants.
14. Plant transformation methods: floral dip and biolistic.

SEMINARS (each seminar 2 students):
1. Mitosis or meiosis that is a question
2. Sperm or oocyte in hermaphrodites
3. Mechanisms of preventing polyspermy in animals
4. Parthenogenesis
5. Metamorphosis
6. Regeneration
7. Embryonic stem cells
8. Endocrine disruptors
9. The role of DNA methylation during development
10. The role of paracrine factors in embryonal induction
11. The role of retinoic acid during development
12. Development of germ cell lines in plants
13. Male gametophyte development in flowering plant
14. Development and functions of synergides
15. Mechanisms of pollen tube attraction
16. Polyspermy prevention in plants
17. In vitro fertilization in plants
18. Green love talks; cell cell communication during double fertilization
19. Gametes fusion and zygote polarity
20. Embryo and endosperm development
21. The roles of suspensor
22. Cell to cell communication during plant embryogenesis
,EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. to define basic processes and mechanisms in development of man, animals and plants
2. to recognize microscopic structure of developmental stages on plant, insect, amphibian, bird and mammal examples
3. to describe how the genes are activated and control the development (Hox and MADS genes examples)
4. to compare how animal and plant tissues are formed through embryonic cells interactions and induction
5. to describe how plant organs are initiated post embryonically
6. to use acquired knowledge in preparing autonomously seminar of selected theme

COURSE CONTENT

LECTURES
1. Historical roots of developmental biology (classical and modern approach); the role of genes in development and the signals that control expression of those genes. Animal and plant model systems.
2. The functional structure of animal gonads; the development of primordial germ cells and gonads.
3. Chromosomal and environmental sex determination.
4. Gametogenesis: Oogenesis. Cytoplasmic determinants, yolk proteins formation, vitellogenesis, oocyte maturation, egg envelopes. Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Hormonal regulation of gametogenesis in vertebrates.
5. Fertilization: the mechanisms of fertilization in different species, the contribution of the ovum and spermatozoon.
6. Cleavage: the patterns of cleavage, the amount of yolk affects cleavage; blastulas of various animals. Extraembryonic membranes (reptiles, birds and mammals).
7. Gastrulation: forming of ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, archenteron and coelom (the differences between the protostomes and deuterostomes). Gastrulation of sea urchins, fruit fly, frog, chicken and mouse.
8. Early development of man. The role of placenta. Origin of twins.
9. Morphogenesis and cell differentiation during development: neurulation, organogenesis. Cell to cell interactions and induction. Epithelial mesenchyme interactions. Paracrine factors.
10. The genetic core of development (dorsal ventral and anterior posterior axis formation, segmentation in insects, homeotic genes).
11. Plant cell: cell growth and development; establishment of polarity and differentiation; plant life cycle.
12. Embryogenesis: from the egg cell and zygote to embryo.
13. Shoot growth and development: genetic regulation of shoot meristem activity; development of axillary shoot.
14. Root growth and development: root meristem activity; development of axillary root.
15. Flowering: external control of flowering; the role of photoperiodism and temperature; ABC model; gametophyte development.
16. Dormancy and aging: mechanisms and functions of dormancy; programmed cell death, plant death.

LABORATORY EXERCISES
1. Functional structure of ovaries and testes, epidydimis; spermatogenesis and oogenesis (mammals).
2. Reproductive systems and reproductive strategies of animals: comparison between gastropods (ovotestes), crustaceans, fish and reptiles.
3. Female reproductive tract: structure of oviduct and uterus (mammals).
4. Fertilisation, blastocyst development (echinoderms, amphibians, birds, mammals).
5. Implantation and differentiation of extraembryonic tissues (mammals).
6. Gastrulation (echinoderms, amphibians, birds, mammals).
7. Structure of placenta; types of placenta (mammals).
8. Neurulation and mesoderm segmentation (birds, mammals).
9. Beginning of organogenesis: comparative representation of kidney development (mammals).
10. Flowering, pollen development and embryo sac development; isolation of gametophytes; recognition of developmental stage after propidium jodide staining; pollen germination in vitro.
11. Isolation and comparison of zygotic and somatic embryo developmental stages.
12. Isolation and microscopic analysis of shoot apical meristem.
13. Root apical meristem and radial root pattering; analysis of different PIN::GFP mutants.
14. Plant transformation methods: floral dip and biolistic.

SEMINARS (each seminar 2 students):
1. Mitosis or meiosis that is a question
2. Sperm or oocyte in hermaphrodites
3. Mechanisms of preventing polyspermy in animals
4. Parthenogenesis
5. Metamorphosis
6. Regeneration
7. Embryonic stem cells
8. Endocrine disruptors
9. The role of DNA methylation during development
10. The role of paracrine factors in embryonal induction
11. The role of retinoic acid during development
12. Development of germ cell lines in plants
13. Male gametophyte development in flowering plant
14. Development and functions of synergides
15. Mechanisms of pollen tube attraction
16. Polyspermy prevention in plants
17. In vitro fertilization in plants
18. Green love talks; cell cell communication during double fertilization
19. Gametes fusion and zygote polarity
20. Embryo and endosperm development
21. The roles of suspensor
22. Cell to cell communication during plant embryogenesis
Literature:
  1. Gilbert S. F.: Developmental Biology, Sinauer Associates, INC., Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts, 2003
  2. Wolpert L.: Principles of Development, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002
  3. CD i interna skripta s predavanjima i protokolima praktikuma
  4. Wheater's Functional Histology a text and colour atlas, ed. B. Young, J.W. Heath, Churchill Livingstone, London, 2001
  5. Taiz and Zeiger E.: Plant Physiology, Associates, INC., Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts, 2002
  6. Roberts (ed): Handbook in Plant Science
  7. Leyser and Day: Mechanisms in Plant Development
  8. Junqueira L.C., Carneiro J.: Osnove histologije, Udžbenik i atlas, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2005.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Attended : Genetics
5. semester
Mandatory course - Mandatory studij - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule: