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Physiology of Oxidative Stress in Humans and Animals

Code: 74651
ECTS: 6.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Domagoj Đikić - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Vesna Benković - Lectures
prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić - Lectures
Lecturers: prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić - Seminar

dr. sc. Vedran Balta - Practicum
prof. dr. sc. Domagoj Đikić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
Seminar 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Students will be able to:

1. Understand the basics of oxidative stress in the body; the physiological and pathological role in the body.
2. Understand the basic features of individual radicals and mechanisms and conditions of their creation.
3. Understand the mechanisms of neutralization of certain radicals, collecting, and inactivation of DNA repair through mechanisms Antioxidant defenses in order to maintain physiological homeostasis.
4. Students will be able to understand and know to interpret scientific and professional papers in Biomedicine (human and veterinary medicine) and Biology and in some Biotechnological sciences.
5. Students will be able to apply methods of assessing oxidative stress and / or reduction of oxidative stress, reparation and regeneration of tissues after administration of antioxidants in the study of certain toxic compounds, environmental conditions and specific diseases and the application of methods to assess the impact of specific therapies in animal models and in vitro studies.
6. Students will be able to create a design of experiments to assess the level of damage to various biological samples (kidney, liver, spleen, brain, blood and other body fluids) as a consequence of oxidative stress as well as a plan for checking various preparations reduction of oxidative stress.
7. Analyze and identify redox changes and their importance in a variety of chronic diseases and point to the possibility of modulation of these reactions.
8. critically assess experiments testing related to the assessment of oxidative stress with the biomedical aspects.
9. to evaluate the role and importance of the application of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of various diseases and recommend them as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases


Oxidative stress is a relatively new concept that can last 20 years or so developed in biomedical sciences. It contributes significantly to the occurrence of pathophysiological conditions - diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, preklampsie, atherosclerosis, acute renal failure, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, etc. Under normal conditions, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is in equilibrium with their removal from the body. However imbalance between pro and anti-oxidant induces oxidative stress, which is reflected in an increase in ROS in cells and leads to increased damage, disease and cell aging.
1.Generation of reactive oxygen and consequences of oxidative stress; The metabolism of oxygen in the cells; Reactive oxygen species (ROS).
2. Lipid peroxidation; acute and chronic oxidative stress
3. Mediators of oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion injury of tissue; surgical and traumatic stress-local and systemic effects;
4. Importance of mediators of oxidative stress in the development of inflammation, sepsis and shock;
5. Genetic base of oxidative stress-molecular-biological aspects of detoxification of free radicals and ROS
6. Oxidative stress in oncology-carcinogenesis and defense mechanisms
7. Cytokines and oxidative stress
8. Neuropathology of cerebrovascular disease and oxidative stress
9.Reproductive system and oxidative stress
10. Apoptosis and oxidative stress-immunochemical and immunohistochemical analysis
11. Oxidative DNA damage
12. Antioxidants, biotransformation enzymes in the prevention of oxidative stress
13. Genotoxicity tests

1. Protein Determination - Lowry Procedure
2. Measurement of catalase (CAT) activity
3. Measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level
4. Measurement of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH)
5. Gluthatione (GSH) assay
6. Measurement of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity
7. Measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity
8. Determination of Nitric oxide production by Griess reagens
9. Determination of Protein carbonyls (PC)
10. Statistical processing and analysis of the data obtained

Part of teaching-related seminars based on broad awareness of educational content, discussion of topics, clarifying and linking of data items, the recommendation of route of administration of antioxidans and reaching conclusions. The seminars will be based on the following:
Relationship between oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants
Chronic diseases and oxidative stress
Mitochondrial disfunction
Reactive oxygen species in health and disease
Reactive oxygen species and inflammation
Metal-induced oxidative stress
UV radiation, inflammation and oxidative stress
Oxidative stress and aging
Oxidative stress and altered immune function
Oxidative stress and altered susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections
Oxidative stress and incidence of autoimmune diseases
Poor lifestyle habits and oxidative stress
Flavonoids as powerful antioxidants
  1. Lectures which will be available on CD-ROM or web site.

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants: Their Role in Human Disease (2009) Ramon Rodrigo (Ed.) Nova Science Publishers, ISBN 1607415542
2. semester
Izborni predmeti - Regular module - Physiology and Immunobiology
Consultations schedule: